Biological Sciences Courses

For specific questions regarding undergraduate course offerings in biology, please contact the Department of Biology or consult the Undergraduate Bulletin of Information 2015-2016.

BIOS 10098. Introductory Biology

(3-3-4)

Students receiving a 5 on the Biology AP I examination or an IB grade of 7, receive credit fully equivalent to BIOS 10161 + 11161 and BIOS 10162 + 11162, i.e., the first year sequence of Biological Sciences I and II with laboratories designed for science majors. For those students who choose not to waive AP or IB credit, BIOS 10098 and 10099 combined will be accepted as a prerequisite for all upper-level biology courses where BIOS 10161 and/or BIOS 10162 are the prerequisites. Students intending to apply to medical or other professional schools where AP science credit is not accepted, or where two semesters of general biology with laboratories at the college level are required, almost universally waive their AP credit at Notre Dame and take the classes for academic degree credit. In these cases, BIOS 10098/10099 will revert to non-degree credit on their final transcript, when replaced by 8.0 letter-graded degree credits of either BIOS 10161/11161 + 10162/1116201/21201 + 20202/21202 as determined by the requirements of their respective majors.

BIOS 10099. Introductory Biology II

(3-3-4)

Students receiving a 5 on the Biology AP examination or an IB grade of 7, receive credit fully equivalent to BIOS 10161 + 11161 and BIOS 10162 + 11162, i.e., the first year sequence of Biological Sciences I and II with laboratories designed for science majors. For those students who choose not to waive AP or IB credit, BIOS 10098 and 10099 combined will be accepted as a prerequisite for all upper-level biology courses where BIOS 10161 and/or BIOS 10162 are the prerequisites. Students intending to apply to medical or other professional schools where AP science credit is not accepted, or where two semesters of general biology with laboratories at the college level are required, almost universally waive their AP credit at Notre Dame and take the classes for academic degree credit. In these cases, BIOS 10098/10099 will revert to non-degree credit on their final transcript, when replaced by 8.0 letter-graded degree credits of either BIOS 10161/11161 + 10162/1116201/21201 + 20202/21202 as determined by the requirements of their respective majors. Please see printed section of this bulletin (page 125) for a general statement pertaining to Biology Survey Courses.

BIOS 10101. Human Genetics, Evolution, and Society

(3-0-3)

This course will address fundamental biological principles using the two cornerstones of modern biology: genetics and evolution. Elementary chemistry, cell theory, reproduction, and development will also be covered. The emphasis, however, will be on human genetics and will include such topics as the cause and effects of genetic abnormalities, the genetic basis of intelligence and skin color, genes and cancer, and elementary population genetics. The state of "genetic engineering" research, the recombinant DNA controversy (including the implications of this kind of research on society and the individual) will be presented. Fall and spring.

BIOS 10106. Common Human Diseases

(3-0-3)

The goal of this course is to introduce students to diseases that may afflict them, their parents, and/or their children, as well as other health problems common to the Tropics. It will provide the student with the information necessary to understand the biology of the disease process. Fall. This course counts as general elective credit only for students in the College of Science. 

BIOS 10107. Ecology and Environmental Issues

(3-0-3)

Emphasis will be placed upon today's ecological and environmental problems and the possible effect they may have upon the future evolution of life on Earth. Topics will generally include an overview of the theory of evolution and a discussion of ecological principles as observed at the population, community, and ecosystem levels. The influence of cultural and political factors will also be discussed. Each academic year, one or more sections will be offered; some may be individually subtitled, allowing for one-time presentation of specific topics within the context of "environment and evolution" in addition to multiple-semester presentations of a specific topic (e.g., Evolutionary Ecology, Freshwater and Society, Environmental Issues and Solutions). Fall and spring.

BIOS 10108. Revolutions in Biology

(5-0-3)

The goal of this course is to teach six basic tenets of biology, the historical context for each discovery, the scientific and technical advances made, and their ethical implications. The topics will include genetics and evolution, cell biology and biochemistry, the germ theory, and ecology. A term paper is required. Summer.

BIOS 10112. The Marine Environment

The world ocean makes up 97% of the planet's water and 99% of all living space on earth. Ocean systems and processes have a profound effect on our current and future well-being, yet the ocean remains mysterious to us in many ways. Humans have caused and continue to cause radical changes in ocean chemistry, physics, and biology. It is therefore more critical than ever for us to understand the mechanisms that undergird the physical and biological aspects of the world ocean. This class is divided into three parts: the first provides an introduction to oceanography - the physical aspects of the ocean. The second is an exploration of the incredibly diverse organisms that inhabit the ocean and how they interact with each other and their environment. The last section of the class focuses on human environmental impacts on the world ocean and how human societies and policies can best contribute to ocean health. 

BIOS 10114. Avian Biology

(3 -0- 3) 
This course is an overview of the general principles of biology with an emphasis on birds. Lecture topics include the origin and evolution, anatomy and physiology, life history and behavior, and ecology and conservation of birds.

BIOS 10115. Microbes and Man

(3 -0- 3)
The course will provide a survey of relationships between man and microorganisms. General information about microbial physiology, biochemistry, and ecology will support more detailed discussions of interesting topics in food, medical, and applied microbial biology. Included will be subjects of general and historical interest, as well as current newsworthy topics. The student should get a better understanding of the role of microorganisms in disease, the production of common foods, relevant environmental issues, and biotechnology. This course counts as general elective credit only for students in the College of Science.

BIOS 10117. Biodiversity: Its Challenge and Future

Today, species of plants and animals are going extinct at an unprecedented rate in the 3.5 billion-year history of life on Earth. Declining biodiversity is compounded by other environmental issues, such as climate change and the introduction of invasive species. We will explore the science behind these and other current environmental issues, and survey the reasons why these issues concern biologists. We will begin by discussing what science is and how the scientific process works. Then we will explore the planet's vast biodiversity. We will learn where it comes from, how it's measured, and look at patterns in distributions of diversity. Throughout the course, we will focus on fundamental concepts in ecology, evolution, and conservation biology to understand these issues. We will use a variety of activities, discussions, and group work to engage in the material, so students should come to class prepared to participate. 

BIOS 10119. Evolution and Society

(3 -0- 3) 
The goal of this course is to introduce students to basic principles of evolutionary biology and to highlight applications to a range of contemporary topics in medicine and human health. Topics include contributions of genetics to disease susceptibility, use of phylogenetic trees to infer patterns of disease emergence and spread, and consequences of natural selection for the control of diseases ranging from HIV to cancer. Does not count as science credit for College of Science majors.

BIOS 10161. Biological Sciences I

(3-0-3)

Corequisite: BIOS 11161
This is a two-semester course with three lectures and one three-hour laboratory a week for first-year students contemplating a career in biology, medicine, or related areas of life science. The first semester presents a description of biologically important molecules and then proceeds to cell structure, energy metabolism, and classical and modern genetics. The topics presented in the second semester in the context of modern evolutionary theory include biological diversity, ecology, and organismal physiology. BIOS 10161 and 10162 are not typical survey courses; they go into greater depth, especially in modern molecular biology. When followed by BIOS 20241 and BIOS 20250, they will provide biology and biochemistry majors, including premedical intents, with a thorough in-depth overview of basic concepts of modern biology.

BIOS 10162. Biological Sciences II

(3-0-3)

Prerequisite: BIOS 10161
Corequisite: BIOS 11162
This is the second semester of a two-semester course for first year students contemplating a career in biology, medicine, or related areas of life science. The topics presented in the second semester in the context of modern evolutionary theory include biological diversity, ecology, and organismal physiology.

BIOS 10191. Biology's Impact in our World

(3-0-3)

Students explore core principles in biology that are encountered on a daily basis in the news as they relate to changes in our lives and society in general. These are controversial issues that society is debating, because they affect social policy. Several foci emerge from this debate. First, what is the role of biotechnology on our lives? This includes issues with the widespread use of antibiotics and genetically modified foods, genetic testing, cancer treatment and pharmaceutical development. Second, what happens when biology challenges the beliefs and activities of people? This includes issues dealing with stem cell technology, the origin and evolution of life, the preservation of biodiversity, and human impact on the biosphere. Each week a different issue is investigated using a multifaceted approach to increase student awareness of the underlying controversy. First, a basic knowledge of the biological principle is pursued via in- and out-of-class lecture and readings. Next, in-class problem-solving and discussion of the controversy is undertaken. And finally, a student run debate is held to more fully appreciate the underlying reasoning and passion of opposing viewpoints.

BIOS 11161. Biological Sciences I - Lab

(1-0-1)

Corequisite: BIOS 10161
The laboratory sessions are an integral part of the lecture courses, which will complement the lectures. The lab sessions will also offer the student direct experience in using the scientific method and simultaneously introduce numerous biological and analytical techniques. In addition, students learn to present their findings during the course of the two semesters of laboratory as they would for a journal article or a scientific meeting (seminar and poster presentations).

BIOS 11162. Biological Sciences II - Lab

(1-0-1)

Corequisite: BIOS 10162
The laboratory sessions are an integral part of the lecture courses, which will complement the lectures. The lab sessions will also offer the student direct experience in using the scientific method and simultaneously introduce numerous biological and analytical techniques. In addition, students learn to present their findings during the course of the two semesters of laboratory as they would for a journal article or a scientific meeting (seminar and poster presentations).

BIOS 12161. Biological Sciences Tutorial 

The Biological Sciences I tutorial is to be taken concurrently with the lecture. Students may not take lecture alone or the tutorial alone. 

BIOS 20201. General Biology A

(3-0-3)

Prerequisites: (CHEM 10122 or CHEM 10172 or CHEM 10182)
Introduction to living organisms with emphasis on biological processes and principles. BIOS 20201 introduces biology to the student at the cellular level, covering such topics as important biological molecules, energy metabolism, and classical and modern genetics. BIOS 20201 and 20202, along with their concomitant laboratories (BIOS 21201 and 20202) constitute a traditional two-semester introduction to biology. This sequence covers more topics, but in less depth, than the former BIOS 155-156 or BIOS 10161-10162 and is designed to provide students with the necessary background for subsequent advanced biology courses and to help them prepare for MCATS. A prerequisite is a full year of college chemistry. In addition, organic chemistry is to be taken concurrently.

BIOS 20202. General Biology B

(3-0-3)

Prerequisite: BIOS 20201
Introduction to living organisms with emphasis on biological processes and principles. BIOS 20201 and 20202, along with their concomitant laboratories (BIOS 21201 and 21202) constitute a traditional two-semester introduction to biology. This sequence covers more topics, but in less depth, than BIOS 10155 and 10156 or BIOS 10161 and 10162 and is designed to provide students with the necessary background for subsequent advanced biology courses and to help them prepare for MCATS. A prerequisite is a full year of college chemistry. In addition, organic chemistry is to be taken concurrently. The general sequence of topics is reversed compared to BIOS 10155 and 10156. BIOS 20201 introduces biology to the student at the cellular level, covering such topics as important biological molecules, energy metabolism, and classical and modern genetics. BIOS 10202 goes beyond the cellular level, with an emphasis on organismic physiology, evolution, diversity, and ecology. Note: CHEM 10114 or 10118 or 10126 must be completed before taking BIOS 20201. BIOS 20201, 21201 and 20202, 21202 may be substituted for 10155-10156 or 10161-10162; however, this sequence is quite different from 10155-10156 or 10161-10162 in content and does not provide the depth afforded by 10155-10156 or 10161-10162 nor does 20201-20202 provide the equivalent laboratory experience essential to biology majors intent on taking BIOS 21241 and 21250.

BIOS 20241. Molecular Cellular Biology

(3-0-3)

Prerequisite: (BIOS 20250) AND (CHEM 20247OR CHEM 20223)
This course is restricted to biological science and majors only. This course explores the fundamental structural and functional basis of cell biology, with specific emphasis on molecular mechanisms that regulate cellular activities involved in ion and solute transport, organelle biogenesis, protein trafficking and vesicular transport, intracellular communication and signaling, cell cycle growth control regulation, and cytomechanics. The lecture portion of the course is dedicated to exposing students to the protein machinery driving cell functions, while the laboratory complements lecture by providing a combination of experiments and opportunities for independent project-based investigation focused on elucidating basic cell function. Spring.

BIOS 20250. Classical and Molecular Genetics

(4-0-4)

Prerequisite: (BIOS 10155) OR (BIOS 10156) OR (BIOS 20201) OR (BIOS 10161) OR (BIOS 10162)
This course is restricted to biological science majors only. The course exposes students to classical and molecular genetics and demonstrates how these two approaches can combine to examine complex problems. The lecture is strongly weighted toward teaching students to solve genetic and molecular biological problems. Classical genetic principles are introduced first. Students are then presented with the techniques to examine underlying genetic principles through problem solving. Basic principles and techniques of molecular biology are next presented, and students learn how to apply these techniques to explore genetic problems. The laboratory gives the students hands-on experience in a number of genetic and molecular techniques and demonstrates how these procedures are combined to produce a cohesive genetic picture. Experiments begin with classical genetic analysis of a mutation, progress to isolating the mutant gene by PCR and standard cloning techniques, followed by DNA sequencing the genomic fragments to determine the nature of the genetic defect. Immunolocalization of the protein in mutant and wild-type flies brings the molecular work back to the organism, providing a full-circle study of the genetic mutation under study. At the end of the lab, students are ready for the independent study projects conducted in the laboratory for BIOS 20241, Molecular Cell Biology. Fall.

BIOS 20303. Fundamentals of Genetics

(3-0-3)

Prerequisite: BIOS 10161 or BIOS 20201
An elementary course dealing with the principles of variation and inheritance in plants and animals, with special reference to humans. Designed primarily for junior preprofessional students. Spring.

BIOS 20401. Fundamentals of Biological Anthropology 

This course approaches human evolution from a theoretical point of view that combines both biological and cultural processes into a cohesive bio-cultural model. It begins by tracing the development of modern evolutionary theory and the place of evolutionary studies in anthropology, especially in the sub-field of bioanthropology. These concepts provide the framework for understanding the many lines of evidence that anthropologists use to explore and explain human evolution. These include studies of our primate relatives, through the intricacies of the fossil record, to archaeological evidence for the invention of material culture from the simplest stone tools to the complex cultural world that we live in today. Modern human variation can only be explained as the result of evolutionary forces acting on the complex interplay of biology and culture over millions of years. We continue to be affected by these forces, and this course not only provides information about where we came from, it also provides the scientific backgrounds to help us understand where we might be going as our species continues to evolve. 

BIOS 20450. Neuroscience and Behavior 

This course is intended to provide a broad introduction to the field of neuroscience and behavior, from the level of molecules flowing across cell membranes up to complex human cognition. It is intended primarily for sophomores and required of all Neuroscience and Behavior majors. The associated laboratory is also required an may be taken concurrently or at a later time. 

BIOS 21201. General Biology A Laboratory

(0-3-1)

Materials covered in laboratory parallel the lecture material for the most part.

BIOS 21202. General Biology B Laboratory

(1-0-1)

Corequisite: BIOS 20202
Materials covered in laboratory parallel the lecture material for the most part.

BIOS 21241. Molecular Cellular Biology Laboratory

(0-3-1)

Corequisite: BIOS 20241
This cell biology laboratory is a special section only for biology and environmental science majors. It focuses on techniques rather than the investigational experimental approach of BIOS 27241R. Note: Prior to Spring 2003, there was a single BIOS 20241 laboratory. See the current description of BIOS 27241 for details of that experimental laboratory.

BIOS 21250. Classical and Molecular Genetics Laboratory

(0-3-1)

Prerequisite: BIOS 20250*)  
* Indicates classes which can be taken concurrently

In this laboratory course, students will characterize mutations that cause retinal degeneration in the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, in a series of related experiments comprising a semester-long study. The labs will be broken into two major sections, starting with the genetic characterization of a mutation, followed by the molecular characterization of the altered gene causing that mutation. This directed research project will be presented in two drafts of a complex research paper. Some work outside the four-hour lab period will be required. Fall.

BIOS 21303. Fundamental Genetics Laboratory

(0-3-1)

Prerequisite: (BIOS 20303 (MAY BE TAKEN CONCURRENTLY))
Laboratory provides experience in genetic experimentation and analysis. Either BIOS 21250 or 31303 is required for biology majors, optional for others. Spring.

BIOS 21450. Neuroscience and Behavior Lab

This laboratory accompanies the Neuroscience and Behavior lecture course (SC or BIOS 20450). It is required for all Neuroscience and Behavior majors and may be taken concurrently with the lecture or at a later time. The lab will introduce experimental approaches typical of the field, including anatomical, histological, electrophysiological, and behavioral methods. 

 

BIOS 27241. Molecular Cell Biology Laboratory

(V-0-V)

This cell biology laboratory, reserved exclusively for BIOS majors, is an investigative, project-based laboratory designed to expose students to a bona fide research experience involving the development and application of critical thinking skills to solve complex research problems. Working in groups of four to six, students will devote themselves to tackling self-chosen research projects reviewed and approved by course instructors. The culmination of the laboratory experience ends when students formally prepare and present their findings in a poster-style scientific meeting. Spring.

BIOS 28498. Introduction to Undergraduate Research

(0 -V- V)
Introduction to research procedures including basic laboratory methods, design of effective experiments, use of controls and statistics to generate valid data, ethical concerns relevant to reporting research data, literature searches, and delivery of effective research presentations.

BIOS 30170. Introduction to Anthropological Genetics

(3-0-3)

In this course, students will explore central questions within biological anthropology from a genetic perspective. The class will cover basic principles of molecular and population genetics. Additionally, students will learn how molecular and population genetics are applied to anthropological issues. Topics to be covered include: human origins, peopling of world, and human genetic diversity and disease. 

BIOS 30301. Embryology

(3 -0- 3) 
Prerequisites: (BIOS 10161 or BIOS 20201) and (BIOS 10162 or BIOS 20202)

Overview of the embryology and histology of the developing organism with an emphasis on the clinical aspects. Content similar to BIOS 30342.

BIOS 30305. Evolution

(3 -0- 3) 
Prerequisite: BIOS 10162 or BIOS 20202
The mechanisms and processes involved in the production of life as we know it today, as well as a discussion on the impact current events may have upon life in the future.

BIOS 30307. Advanced Perspectives on Human Evolution

(3 -0- 3)
Prerequisite: BIOS 10162 or BIOS 20202 or ANTH 30101
This course takes an in-depth integrative approach to issues in human evolution. Beginning with an overview of current innovation and discourse in evolutionary theory we will move on to tackle various topical issues related to human evolutionary history and its relevance to being human today. Focal points of discussion will include; in-depth analyses of fossil hominin species and their ecologies, a detailed assessment of nonhuman primate behavior as used in modeling the patterns and contexts of human behavior, a review and analyses of current debate surrounding the origin of modern humans, and current topics in the field of human evolution and paleoanthropological theory. Students will be required to produce a focused research paper and be involved in course presentations and discussions. Readings will be drawn from relevant fields including biology, anthropology, ecology and occasionally, philosophy.

BIOS 30310. The History of Life

(3 -0- 3) 
Prerequisite: BIOS 10162 or BIOS 20202

This course takes an in-depth integrative approach to issues in human evolution. Beginning with an overview of current innovation and discourse in evolutionary theory we will move on to tackle various topical issues related to human evolutionary history and its relevance to being human today. Focal points of discussion will include; in-depth analyses of fossil hominin species and their ecologies, a detailed assessment of nonhuman primate behavior as used in modeling the patterns and contexts of human behavior, a review and analyses of current debate surrounding the origin of modern humans, and current topics in the field of human evolution and paleoanthropological theory. Students will be required to produce a focused research paper and be involved in course presentations and discussions. Readings will be drawn from relevant fields including biology, anthropology, ecology and occasionally, philosophy.

BIOS 30310. The History of Life

(3-0-3)

This course explores the origin, history, and systematics of life on Earth, starting from hypotheses examining life's origin(s) and including current thinking concerning the systematic relationships of organisms and the evolution of humans. The class will be taught primarily from a macroevolutionary perspective. BIOS 30310 therefore represents the complement to BIOS 30305 (Evolution), which concentrates on processes generating gene frequency changes within populations (i.e., microevolution). Fall.

BIOS 30312. General Ecology

(3 -0- 3) 
Prerequisites: (BIOS 10161 or BIOS 20201) and (BIOS 10162 or BIOS 20202)

The study of populations and communities of organisms and their interrelations with the environment. Fall and spring.

BIOS 30315. Tropical Medicine and Public Health

(2 -0- 2)
Prerequisite: (BIOS 10161 or BIOS 20201) and (BIOS 10162 or BIOS 20202) 

This course gives an overview of tropical diseases and how they affect the populations throughout the world while emphasizing the more important ones, particularly affecting the American region. In addition to a clinical description of the diseases, it will present them from a public health perspective, with all the efforts made at countries level and globally to control, eliminate or eradicate them. A brief history and introduction of public health will precede the diseases presentation. Students will be asked to present on selected topics of interest.

BIOS 30325. Plant Science

(3 -0- 3)
Prerequisite: BIOS 20241 or BIOS 30341 (may be taken concurrently) and (BIOS 20250 or BIOS 20303) and (BIOS 10161 or BIOS 10162 or BIOS 20201 or BIOS 20202)

This course for biology majors provides a more detailed examination of plant development, biochemistry, genetics, and ecology than presented in the general and cell biology courses. Specific topics include energy capture and biosynthesis strategies, plant biochemistry, nitrogen fixation, defense mechanisms, plant diversity, plant reproductive strategies, plant genetics, grassland and forest ecology, plant domestication, the ecological impact of plant domestication, and forest management policy (Fall). 

BIOS 30338. Neurobiology

(3 -0- 3) 
Prerequisite: (BIOS 10161 and BIOS 10162) or (BIOS 10161 and BIOS 20202) or (BIOS 20201 and BIOS 20202) or (BIOS 20201 and BIOS 10162) and (BIOS 20241 or BIOS 30341) and (BIOS 30344 or BIOS 30421 or BIOS 34344)

Neuroscience is a relatively new field. It consists of several quite separate disciplines, for example, neuroanatomy, which studies the structure of neural tissue; neurophysiology, which investigates individual nerve cell properties; neurochemistry, which is concerned with the substances found in brain tissue; and cognitive neuroscience, which deals with higher brain function. This course will discuss all of these issues. Topics will include nerve cell function (i.e., electric and chemical synapses, neurotransmitters, and neural control of locomotion), and cognition (i.e., perception, learning, and memory). By the end of the course, students will be expected to understand our current knowledge of how the brain controls our actions and behaviors.

BIOS 30339. Comparative Neurobiology

(3-0-3)

This course will introduce and examine the structure and function of our nervous system, and explore the connection between physiology and behavior. We will also learn how ? simpler nervous systems like those of nematodes, fruit flies and honey bees accomplish fairly complex tasks from ensembles of a few neurons, assembled into the circuits to produce those complex functions.

BIOS 30341. Cellular Biology

(3 -0- 3) 
Prerequisites: ( (BIOS 10161 or BIOS 20201) and (BIOS 10162 or BIOS 20202) ) and (CHEM 10122 or CHEM 10172 or CHEM 10182 or CHEM 20273 or CHEM 20283)

Designed primarily for junior preprofessional students. Structural and functional aspects of the biology of cells are addressed. Fall and spring.

BIOS 30342. Developmental Biology

(3 -0- 3) 
Prerequisite: (BIOS 20250 or BIOS 20303) and (BIOS 20241 or BIOS 30341)

Development of plants, animals, and microorganisms studied at the molecular, cellular, and organismic levels.

BIOS 30344. Vertebrate (Human) Physiology

(3 -0- 3)
Prerequisite: (BIOS 10161 or BIOS 20201) and (BIOS 10162 or BIOS 20202) and (CHEM 10122 or CHEM 10172 or CHEM 10182 or CHEM 20283)

Physiological functions and processes at the level of organs and organ systems, oriented primarily toward humans. Designed primarily for junior preprofessional students. Fall and spring.

BIOS 30401. Principles of Microbiology

(3 -0- 3) 
Prerequisites: (BIOS 10161 or BIOS 20201) and (BIOS 10162 or BIOS 20202) and (CHEM 10122 or CHEM 10172 or CHEM 10182 or CHEM 20273 or CHEM 20283)

An introduction to microbial life, including structure and function of bacteria. Characterization and classification of microorganisms are considered and include their ecology, growth and death, metabolism, physiology, genetics and antigenic analysis. The impact of microorganisms on human health is discussed through representative pathogenic bacteria. Fall and/or Spring. 

BIOS 30404. Vertebrate Biology

(3 -0- 3) 
Prerequisite: BIOS 10162 or BIOS 20202
A study of systematic relationships, evolution, and life histories of living and extinct vertebrates, and the physiology and behavior of living vertebrates. Fall.

BIOS 30406. General Entomology

(3 -0- 3) 
Prerequisite: BIOS 10162 or BIOS 20202
Corequisite: BIOS 31406

A study of the morphology, life histories, and systematic relationships of insects, with emphasis on medical and agricultural aspects. Alternating fall semesters.

BIOS 30407. Animal Behavior

(3 -0- 3)
Prerequisite: BIOS 10162 or BIOS 20202

A consideration of individual and social behavior patterns, with emphasis on organization and adaptive significance. Neural, endocrine, genetic, and environmental factors modifying behavior will be examined. Spring.

BIOS 30408. Arthropods and Human Disease

(3 -0- 3)
Prerequisite: (BIOS 10161 or BIOS 20201) and (BIOS 10162 or BIOS 20202)

Emphasis on physiology, genetics, and relationships of arthropods as agents and vectors of disease. Spring.

BIOS 30418. Medical Molecular Genetics

(3 -0- 3)
Prerequisites: (BIOS 20250 or BIOS 20303 or BIOS 24250 or BIOS 24303) and (BIOS 20241 or BIOS 30341)

The course will introduce the tools of modern molecular biology and explore their applications at the frontiers of biological research. Advanced topics may include molecular medicine, biotechnology, development, evolution, and neurobiology. Fall.

BIOS 30420. Aquatic Ecology

(3 -0- 4) 
Prerequisite: (BIOS 10161 or BIOS 20201) and (BIOS 10162 or BIOS 20202)

Corequisite: BIOS 31420

A study of the structure and function of aquatic systems with emphasis on the behavioral, physiological and morphological adaptations generated by the physical and chemical characteristics of various aquatic habitats. Fall.

BIOS 30422. Marine Biology

(3 -0- 3) 
Prerequisite: BIOS 10162 or BIOS 20202
Examination of the organisms of the ocean and the interrelationships with the physical, geological and chemical factors of their environment.

BIOS 30423. Genomics: Sequence to Organism

(3 -0- 3) 
Prerequisite: (BIOS 10161 or BIOS 20201) and (BIOS 10162 or BIOS 20202) and (BIOS 20250 or BIOS 20303)

This course will introduce the methods of genome science and explore their applications in biological research and their impact on biological thinking. Topics will include how genomes are studied, how they function, and how they evolve. The importance of comparative and functional genomics in identifying mechanisms of human diseases will be highlighted. Spring.

BIOS 30424. Tumor Cell Biology

(3 -0- 3)
This course is designed for junior and senior level undergraduate students interested in the biology of cancer. It will focus on understanding how normal cells become tumor cells and the specific molecular and cellular properties of tumor cells that are important for cancer progression. The course will also introduce the student to the field of cancer research through the critical examination of primary literature.

BIOS 30455. Medical Microbiology

(3 -0- 3)
Prerequisite: BIOS 20241 or BIOS 24241 or BIOS 30341 or BIOS 34341

This course provides an overview of basic principles in infectious disease caused by major microbial pathogens. Through lectures and discussion of assigned reading material, the course examines current and classical topics in the field of host-pathogen relationships with an emphasis on the interplay between pathogen strategies and the host response. Students will be expected to give group presentations on topics relevant to Medical Microbiology and participate in regular class discussions.

BIOS 30475. Laboratory Animal Science

(2 -0- 2)
Prerequisite: (BIOS 20201 and BIOS 20202) or (BIOS 10161 and BIOS 10162)

An introduction to laboratory animal science, focusing on federally mandated regulations, animal rights/animal welfare controversies, general care and use of animals in a full-compliance program, and common methodologies used in animal-based research. Enrollment is by consent of instructor only and limited to junior or senior undergraduate pre-veterinary students, or biology majors whose graduate career program will require animal use, or graduate students whose research requires animal use at Notre Dame. Spring.

BIOS 31312. General Ecology Laboratory

(0 -1- 1) 
General ecology laboratory is to be taken concurrently with the general ecology lecture. Students may not take lecture alone or laboratory alone.

BIOS 31341. Cell Biology Laboratory

(0 -3- 1) 
Prerequisite: BIOS 20241 or BIOS 30341 (may be taken concurrently) or BIOS 24241 or BIOS 34341

This laboratory course exposes students to a variety of techniques in modern cell biology. Students will get hands-on experience in working with cultured cell lines, including sterile technique, media preparation, and passaging of cells. Individual experiments will include assessment of cell growth and apoptosis, examination of subcellular structure using fluorescent microscopy, separation and analysis of nucleic acids and proteins, enzyme assays, and measurement of cell cycle by flow cytometry. It provides an excellent introduction to the approaches routinely used in analysis of cells and their functions. Fall.

BIOS 31401. Principles of Microbiology Lab

(0 -3- 1) 
Prerequisite: BIOS 30401 (may be taken concurrently) 

Laboratory exercises consider basic techniques in microbiology, such as sterile procedures and microbial metabolism. Fall.

BIOS 31406. General Entomology Laboratory

(0 -3- 1) 
Prerequisite: BIOS 30406 (may be taken concurrently)
Corequisite: BIOS 30406

The laboratory introduces students to insect morphology, systematics, and techniques used in the study of insects. Offered concurrently with lecture.

BIOS 31408. Medical and Veterinary Entomology Laboratory

(0 -3- 1)
Prerequisite: BIOS 30408 (may be taken concurrently)

The laboratory introduces students to the variety of arthropods that vector disease agents or otherwise affect the lives of humans and other vertebrate animals. Offered concurrently with lecture.

BIOS 31420. Aquatic Ecology Laboratory

(0 -3- 0) 
Corequisite: BIOS 30420

Aquatic ecology laboratory is to be taken concurrently with the aquatic ecology lecture. Students may not take lecture alone or laboratory alone.

BIOS 31672. Evolutionary Mechanisms Laboratory

(0 -3- 1)

An examination of evolutionary mechanisms from the experimental approach in a laboratory situation. Previously offered as BIOS 37672.

BIOS 35501. Introduction to UNDERC

(1 -0- 1) 

Open only to students previously accepted into the UNDERC program.

BIOS 35502. Practicum in Environmental Field Biology East

(3 -3- 6) 

Practical training in aquatic and environmental biology through lecture and field experience at the University’s environmental research facility located in northern Wisconsin and the upper peninsula of Michigan. Course includes an independent research project.

BIOS 35503. Practicum in Environmental Biology West

(V -V- 6) 
Prerequisite: BIOS 35502

This course is designed to give the student advanced practical laboratory experience in ecological studies in the grasslands and mountains of western Montana on the Flathead Indian Reservation. The nine week learning experience consists of one week modules on grassland ecology, montane ecology, wildlife ecology, and human ecology focusing on ancestral Native American lifeways, and each student conducts an independent research project over the remaining five weeks.

BIOS 35568. UNDERC Field Studies - Academic Year

(V-V-3)

BIOS 35568 and the companion summer course, BIOS 35569, provide students with the opportunity for extended field studies in the UNDERC environment.

BIOS 36495. Junior Biological Sciences Honors Research Seminar

(1-0-1) 

The Honors program will give students an exceptional background in biological research. Participation in this program will increase their level of commitment and productivity while preparing them for successful postgraduate careers. The goals of the Junior Honors seminar are to: 1) Critically evaluate research data, 2) Design scientifically defensible experiments and projects, 3) Create and present a professional research talk or poster, 4) Articulate career goals following career exploration, 5) Identify common research ethics issues and articulate solutions to these issues, 6) Write a research proposal or report supported by primary literature.

BIOS 37361. Special Studies

(V -0- V)

This variable credit course may be used to provide a special study experience for one student or a small group of students, or, with the permission of the associate dean of the College of Science, as a means to temporarily introduce a new BIOS course(s) prior to its/their receiving full approval and assignment of a unique course number and title.

BIOS 37491. Teaching Practicum in the Life Sciences

(0 -0- 0)
Same as BIOS 37495 except that students who are registered for this section are paid as undergraduate teaching assistants; this section is not graded and no academic credit is given.

BIOS 37492. Teaching Practicum in the Life Sciences

(0 -- V)
Similar to BIOS 37493 except that this is an S/U-graded zero credit section.

BIOS 37493. Teaching Practicum in the Life Sciences

(V -0- V)
Same as BIOS 37495 except that this is a s/u variable credit section; 2.0 maximum credits allowed.

BIOS 37494. Teach Practicum/Life Sciences

(V -0- V)
Same as BIOS 37495 except that this is a letter-graded variable credit section; 2.0 maximum credits allowed

BIOS 37495. Teaching Practicum in Life Sciences

(2 -0- 2)
This course gives the advanced student an opportunity to gain direct experience in teaching. Students are assigned regular teaching duties in certain laboratory courses and must be prepared to accept responsibility. Note: Most states will not accept this in lieu of practice teaching in an education department. Students must clear lab assignments with each section’s practicum coordinator. Fall and spring.

BIOS 37671. Special Studies

(V -V- V)
Special topics in the field of interest for individual or small groups of undergraduate students or for one-time introduction of new course materials will be covered. Spring. Repeatable course.

BIOS 37672. Special Studies

(V -V- V)
Special topics in the field of interest for individual or small groups of undergraduate students or for the one-time introduction of new course materials will be covered. Spring. Repeatable course.

BIOS 38499. Molecular and Cellular Biology Research and Design Laboratory

(0 -2- 2)
Prerequisite: (BIOS 10161 or BIOS 20201) and (CHEM 10172 or CHEM 10182 or CHEM 20223 or two semesters of general biology with labs and two semesters of general chemistry with labs or one semester of general chemistry with lab and one semester of organic chemistry with lab for non-Notre Dame science students.) This course is for science majors only and counts as science credit. It satisfies one of the 6 required laboratory courses for BIOS majors at Notre Dame. This special laboratory course exposes students to a variety of techniques in modern cell biology while participating in an undergraduate research project. Students will get hands-on experience in working with cultured cell lines, including sterile technique, media preparation, and passaging of cells. Individual experiments will include assessment of cell growth and apoptosis, examination of subcellular structure using fluorescent microscopy, separation and analysis of nucleic acids and proteins, enzyme assays, and measurement of cell cycle by flow cytometry. Students will gain experience with reviewing scientific literature, data presentation, statistical analysis, data interpretation, and ethical concerns relevant to reporting research data. Additional outside work in terms of literature review, writing of reports, papers and preparing oral presentations will be necessary.

BIOS 40202. Developmental Neuroscience

(3-0-3)

This is an upper level course that is intended provide a deep dive into the field of developmental neuroscience, spanning from embryological development through adolescence. This course will extend students understanding of fundamental biological and biochemical processes through the study of cellular and molecular mechanisms that underlie the initial development of the central nervous system, early life pruning and adolescent reorganization. Students will learn about the major cellular processes involved in central nervous system development, including but not limited to neural tube patterning, cell proliferation, migration and differentiation, axon guidance, programmed cell death as well as critical periods of development through adolescence. This is a discussion and writing intensive course, based in primary literature. 
 

BIOS 40320. Aquatic Conservation: Global Freshwaters, Science and Policy

(3 -0- 3)
Prerequisite: (BIOS 10161 and BIOS 10162) or (BIOS 20201 and BIOS 20202) ) and (BIOS 30312 or BIOS 30420) This course is designed for advanced undergraduates with a background in ecology and/or environmental science. The first primary goal will be to read, discuss, and write about the main on-going global environmental changes that affect the global water cycle, including regional water quality and water availability. The second primary goal will be to have students examine how the current scientific under- standing of these issues has or has not been incorporated into regional, national and international policy, including policies on water rights. Guest lecturers will be broadly drawn from the research, legal and NGO fields. There will be a textbook, supplemented by readings from the primary literature and other sources. Fall or spring.

BIOS 40339. Human Gross Anatomy

(3 -0- 3)
Prerequisite: (BIOS 10161 and BIOS 11161 and BIOS 10162 and BIOS 11162) or (BIOS 20201 and BIOS 21201 and BIOS 20202 and BIOS 21202)
The course will consist of a description of human gross anatomy. The content will be organized as a regional approach to gross human anatomy with descriptions of the back, thorax, abdomen, pelvis and perineum, lower limb, upper limb, head, and neck. Within each region, subtopics will include bones, ligaments, muscles, vasculature, lymphatics, peripheral nervous system, and regional viscera. The content emphasis will be basic human anatomy although there will be a moderate amount of clinical anatomy.

BIOS 40340. Human Anatomy

(3 -0- 4)
Corequisite: BIOS 41340
The course will consist of a description of human gross anatomy. The content will be organized as a regional approach to gross human anatomy with descriptions of the back, thorax, abdomen, pelvis and perineum, lower limb, upper limb, and head and neck. Within each region, subtopics will include bones, ligaments, muscles, vasculature, lymphatics, peripheral nervous system, and regional viscera. The content emphasis will be basic human anatomy although there will be a moderate amount of clinical anatomy. The required laboratory portion of the course will consist of regional dissection of partially dissected human cadavers, as well as identification of structures of previously dissected human cadavers. The course should serve as a foundation for students planning future human anatomy studies and/or an independent elective. Spring.

BIOS 40411. Biostatistics

(V -0- 4)
Prerequisite: (BIOS 10162 or BIOS 20202) and (MATH 10360 or MATH 10560 or MATH 10860 or MATH 10460)
Corequisite: BIOS 42411
Basic principles of statistical analysis and their application to biological problems, including statistical inference, analysis of variance, regression, non-parametric approaches, and introduction to statistical computing. This course’s lab is a tutorial; it does not fulfill the laboratory elective requirement. Students may not take both BIOS 40411 and MATH 20340. Spring.

BIOS 40412. Introduction to Systems Biology

(3 -0- 3)
Prerequisites: (MATH 10360 or MATH 10460 or MATH 10560 or MATH 10860) and (CHEM 10122 or CHEM 10172 or CHEM 10182)
The goal of this course is to highlight elementary design principles inherent in biology. Many of the underlying principles governing biochemical reactions in a living cell can be related to network circuit motifs with multiple inputs/outputs, feedback and feedforward. This course draws on control theory and elementary biology to provide a mathematical framework to understand biological networks. The topics examined in the course are drawn from current research and include: transcription networks, stochastic gene induction, adaptation, oscillators (circadian rhythms), riboswitches, plasticity, metabolism, pattern development and cancer. The course is intended for advanced undergraduates and graduate students. BIOS 40414. The Biology of Stem Cells and the Emerging Field of Regenerative Medicine

(3 -0- 3)
Prerequisite: BIOS 20241 or BIOS 24241 or BIOS 30341This course will examine the biology of stem cells and explore their uses and applications of stem cells.

BIOS 40415. Medical and Veterinary Parasitology

(3 -0- 3)
Prerequisite: (BIOS 10161 and BIOS 10162) or (BIOS 10161 and BIOS 20202) or (BIOS 20201 and BIOS 20202) or (BIOS 20201 and BIOS 10162) and (BIOS 20250 or BIOS 20303) and (BIOS 20241 or BIOS 30341)
The animal parasites of humans and related hosts are reviewed. The pathology caused by these parasites, epidemiology, life cycles, prophylactic and therapeutic control are considered. Spring.

BIOS 40416. Virology

(3 -0- 3)
Prerequisite: (BIOS 20250 or BIOS 20303) and (BIOS 20241 or BIOS 30341) and (BIOS 21250 or BIOS 21303) and (BIOS 31341 or BIOS 27241)
A study of viruses as primitive biological entities and as disease-inducing agents in humans and other animals: characteristics of viruses and virus infections; molecular aspects of virus replication; methods for diagnosis and prevention of infections; artificial use of viruses. Spring.

BIOS 40417. Human Musculoskeletal Anatomy

(3 -0- 3)
Prerequisite: (BIOS 10161 or BIOS 10162) and (BIOS 20201 or BIOS 20202) An introduction to basic anatomical principles relating to bones and muscles and to the normal anatomical and biochemical aspects of the human musculoskeletal system. Fall.

BIOS 40419. Immunology

(3 -0- 3)
Prerequisite: (BIOS 10162 or BIOS 20202) and (BIOS 20250 or BIOS 20303) and (BIOS 20241 or BIOS 30341)
An introductory course emphasizing the cells and tissues of the immune system and the nature and function of antigens and antibodies. A survey is presented of immune capabilities of humans and animals, immune diseases, immunodeficiency states, transplantation of organs, and the influence of nutrition on the immune system. Fall.

BIOS 40420. Medical Molecular Parasitology

(3-0-3)

Roughly 90% of the world's health care resources are spent on diseases that affect only 10% of the world's population. Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs) are a group of diseases that cause substantial illness for more than one billion people globally. This course will explore the molecular biology and mechanisms of virulence of eukaryotic protozoan parasites that are major causes of human disease and misery in most countries of the tropics. The entry of molecular biology with its elucidation of the genetics, genomics and proteomics of these organisms has provided increasingly sophisticated explanations of their capacities to persist under intense ecological and physiological pressures. The students: (i) will gain a detailed understanding of the molecular biology of these organisms; (ii) will increase their ability to read scientific papers and (iii) will be able to analyze and discuss some of the molecular laboratory techniques presented during the course. 

BIOS 40421. Integrative Comparative Physiology

(4 -0- 4)
Prerequisite: BIOS 20250 and BIOS 20241
Designed primarily for students in the biology or biochemistry majors sequences. This course is designed to be taken either as an introductory animal physiology course for students without formal training in physiology beyond general biology or as a second physiology course for students who have already taken BIOS 30344. General physiological principles are introduced, and the course is designed around the classical organ/system approach to physiology but with stress on comparative and evolutionary relationships. Emphasis is placed on the integrated nature of the various physiological systems and on the relationships of the physiology of the organism to its environment (physiological ecology) as well as to the lower levels of biological hierarchy (biochemistry, cell, and molecular biology). Special emphasis is placed on adaptations to environmental extremes. BIOS 40425. Mammalogy

(3 -0- 4)
Prerequisite: BIOS 10162 or BIOS 20202
Corequisite: BIOS 41425
This course will explore the rich taxonomic diversity of mammals, and investigate mammalian physiology, ecology, and behavior. Students will use a general text for foundation and implement their learning experience with primary literature.

BIOS 40427. The Epidemiology and Ecology of Infectious Diseases

(3 -0- 3)
Prerequisite: (BIOS 10161 or BIOS 20201) and (BIOS 10162 or BIOS 20202)

This course provides an introduction to epidemiology and disease ecology; topics covered include historical perspectives on disease, tracking of disease, spread of disease, and disease mitigation.

BIOS 40428. Practical Public Health Microbiology

(1.5 -1.5 3)
Prerequisite: BIOS 30401 or BIOS 40415 or BIOS 40435 or BIOS 30455
This course provides an exposure to a number of microbiological principles and techniques in public health using case studies to illustrate their application. The course is composed of lecture and laboratory and will provide fundamentals for public health aspects of microbiology including epidemiology, water quality, food microbiology, and basic techniques in handling and identifying microorganisms.

BIOS 40435. Cellular and Molecular Basis of Human Disease

(3 -0- 3)
Prerequisite: (BIOS 20241 or BIOS 30341) and (BIOS 30344 or BIOS 30421 or BIOS 34344)
This course will explore the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying various human diseases. Following an introduction to principles of disease, lectures will focus on recent advances in cellular and molecular aspects of immune responses and inflammation, pathogenic mechanisms and tumor cell biology (including abnormal growth regulation, invasion and metastasis). Specific examples of human diseases will be utilized to illustrate the concepts of disease-related gene products, the use of experimental animal models and the development of novel therapeutic strategies.

BIOS 40440. A.I.D.S.

(3 -0- 3)
Prerequisite: (BIOS 10161 and BIOS 10162) or (BIOS 20201 and BIOS 20202) or (BIOS 10161 and BIOS 20202) or (BIOS 20201 and BIOS 10162) ) and
( (BIOS 20241 or BIOS 24241 or BIOS 30341) and (BIOS 27241 or BIOS 31341) and (BIOS 20250 or BIOS 20303) and (BIOS 21250 or BIOS 21303) ) This course will explore the phenomenon of AIDS, including characteristics of the worldwide AIDS pandemic, the virus (HIV) itself, the immune system and HIV, methods of diagnosis, prevention, treatment, and basic epidemiology as it relates to AIDS. This is an advanced course in infectious diseases designed for premedical majors and other interested students. Laboratory experience in genetics and cell biology is required Fall.

BIOS 40450. Developing Health Networks in Rare and Neglected Diseases

(3 -0- 3)
Prerequisite: (BIOS 10161 or BIOS 20201) and (BIOS 10162 or BIOS 20202) 

A main purpose of this course is to engage upper level undergraduate and graduate students in clinical research in rare and neglected diseases. The focus for each semester is on neglected/infectious diseases with emphasis on worldwide eradication strategies. A major goal is to have Notre Dame students work on a clinical research project in class on some rare and/or neglected disease of major importance. A second important goal of this course is to develop an analogous model(s) for other neglected/infectious diseases. We hope this class will also help the students become advocates for these diseases. The course is also tied to a clinical-translational seminar series to enable students to meet with leading international experts who work in neglected diseases. The class is intended for juniors and seniors.

BIOS 40508. Population Genetics

(3-0-3)

This course will describe and mathematically analyze the processes responsible for genetic change within populations. See Graduate Bulletin of Information 

BIOS 40522. GLOBES: Global Linkages of Biology, the Environment, and Society

(3 -0- 3)
The GLOBES (Global Linkages of Biology, the Environment, and Society) series of courses offered each semester reflect various areas of life science relevant to multiple disciplines. Students should expect to have a different topic offered every semester under the GLOBES heading. The course is repeatable since potentially every semester the topics vary. Cross listed with BIOS 60522.

BIOS 40524. Global Change and Civilization 

All human populations, from the simplest to the most complex, interact with their natural environment. Humans alter the environment and, in turn, are altered by it through biological or cultural adaptations. Global environmental changes helped to create and shape our species, and modern industrial societies are capable of altering the environment on scales that have never been seen before. This course explores the ways that humans are altering the global environment and the ways that global environmental changes alter humans in return. Students will complete the course with an understanding of the metrics and physical science associated with each type of change, their ecological implications, and the ways in which environmental changes continually reshape human biology and culture. 

BIOS 40573. Topics in Ecology 

(3-0-3)

Subject matter changes depending on students' needs. Prospective subjects include systems analysis in ecology or biogeography. (On demand) 

BIOS 40575. Ecosystem Ecology

(3 -0- 3)
This class will develop the principles of terrestrial ecosystem ecology with an emphasis on understanding how mass and energy flows through terrestrial ecosystems. By the end of this course, you will understand how the environment and biology influences carbon and nutrient cycling and energy flux from the leaf to the globe. This course will build on concepts learned in general ecology and will be of interest to anyone seeking a career in ecosystem management, ecology, or those interested in global change impacts on ecosystem structure and function. 

BIOS 41340. Human Anatomy Laboratory

(0 -2- 0)
Corequisite: BIOS 40340
This laboratory consists of regional dissection of partially dissected human cadavers, as well as identification of structures of previously dissected human cadavers. The course should serve as a foundation for students planning future human anatomy studies and/or an independent elective. Spring.

BIOS 41344. Vertebrate (Human) Physiology Laboratory

(0 -3- 1)
Prerequisites: BIOS 30344 or BIOS 34344

Laboratory experience in physiology. Ideally, this laboratory is taken after students have completed the BIOS 30344 lecture. Fall.

BIOS 41415. Medical and Veterinary Parasitology Laboratory

(0 -3- 1)
Prerequisite: BIOS 40415 (may be taken concurrently)
The laboratory introduces students to the microscopic world of parasites. Extensive microscope work is needed. Spring, on demand.

BIOS 41417. Anatomy Laboratory

(0 -3- 1)
Prerequisite: (BIOS 10161 and BIOS 10162) or (BIOS 20201 and BIOS 20202)

Corequisite: BIOS 40417

This lab is available by special arrangement with the instructor and is designed primarily for physical therapy intents. The focus is on musculoskeletal anatomy and should NOT considered a substitute for a general anatomy laboratory.

BIOS 41419. Immunology

(3-0-3)

An introductory course emphasizing the cells and tissues of the immune system and the nature and function of antigens and antibodies. A survey is presented of immune capabilities of humans and animals, immune diseases, immunodeficiency states, transplantation of organs, and the influence of nutrition on the immune system. Fall. 

BIOS 41421. Integrative Comparative Physiology Lab

(0 -1- 1) 
Laboratory provides experience with experimentation and analysis of physiological concepts at the organismal, cellular, and molecular levels. Spring.

BIOS 41425. Mammalogy Laboratory

(0 -3- 0)
Corequisite: BIOS 40425
In conjunction with Mammalogy lecture, this course will provide a hands-on experience in the study of mammals, including how to capture and identify mammals, some unique aspects of mammalian physiology, and use of the scientific method to understand mammalian ecology and behavior.

BIOS 41432. Introduction to Systems Biology Lab

(0-1-3)

This course is intended to supplement the materials described in the "Introduction to Systems Biology" lecture series with practical lab experience. The labs entail work in both biological system realization and simulation. For example, we expect to offer lab practicals concerning the techniques required to produce DNA vectors from fragments and transform E. coli and mouse embryonic stem cells with them. Also techniques for simulating stochastic (single cell) system performance and the use of bioinformatics for protein evolution will be explored. This course is intended for advanced undergraduates or graduate student and requires co-registration in Introduction to Systems Biology.

BIOS 41475. Laboratory Animal Science Laboratory

(2 -0- 2)
Prerequisite: BIOS 30475
This course focuses on experimental techniques and methodologies in both laboratory and clinical settings. Students will divide their laboratory time between hands-on work in the animal facility and clinical experience in area veterinary clinics when possible. Enrollment is by consent of instructor only and limited to senior undergraduate pre-veterinary students, or senior biology majors whose graduate research program will require animal use at Notre Dame. Every student will be required to keep a complete notebook and develop a semester journal project or case study. Fall.

BIOS 42411. Biostatistics Tutorial

(0 -1- 0) 
Corequisite: BIOS 40411
The biostatistics tutorial is to be taken concurrently with the lecture. Students may not take lecture alone or the tutorial alone.

BIOS 45999. Summer Research Internship

(0 -V- V)
Summer research internship experience in biological or environmental sciences.

BIOS 46490. Biological Sciences Honors Research Seminar

(1 -0- 1)
One or more seminars in a select discipline(s) will be offered every semester and is required of all participating in the biological sciences research honors program. The purpose of these disciplinary groups is to create a small learning community where students and practicing scientists can connect. The seminar learning goals are to support and develop each student’s independence, scientific communication skills, critical review skills, and understanding of their research in the context of the larger field. As appropriate, the groups will meet as a whole to foster interdisciplinary habits of mind and skills. The seminar will have the added benefit of helping students prepare for graduate applications and fellowships.

BIOS 46497. Directed Readings

(0 -0- V) 
This course provides the opportunity for independent study through readings on specific topics in biological science. Readings are chosen with the advice of the supervising instructor. Students may not register for more than three credits per semester; only two credits per semester may be counted as BIOS elective credits by majors. Offered all semesters.

BIOS 47500. Principles of Comparative Medicine and Surgery

(3-0-3)

An introduction to comparative medicine and experimental surgery. In this regard, the responsible and humane use of animals as a means to understand and grow knowledge and principles which form the foundation of human and animal medicine represents core knowledge for physicians and other health professionals, scientists, and veterinarians. This course will provide students with background on the use of animal models in the study of human and animal disease, particularly in the areas of infectious disease, cancer, and pharmaceutical discovery. Further, general concepts and basic principles for surgery, including anesthesia, aseptic technique, management of the surgical patient, tools of the surgeon, and suturing and wound closure techniques will be covered.

BIOS 48498. Undergraduate Research

(0 -0- V)
Research in collaboration with members of the faculty. Evaluation of performance will be accomplished through regular discussions with the faculty member in charge of the course. Enrollment must be completed before the end of the first week each semester. Students may not register for more than three credits per semester; only two credits per semester may be counted as BIOS elective credits by majors. Offered all semesters.

BIOS 48999. Research Experience for Undergraduates

(0 -0- 0)
This is a zero-credit course for students engaged in independent research or working with a faculty member or a member of the University staff on a special project. Registration requires a brief description of the research or project to be pursued and the permission of the director of the Summer Session. This course is taken as an indication of the student’s status on campus and is meant to allow the registered student to use the University facilities as the Summer Session permits. No course work is required.

BIOS 50544. Environmental Justice

(3 -0- 3)
This course will survey environmental impact assessment (EIA), ecological risk assessment (ERA), and human-health risk assessment (HHRA); ethical and methodological issues related to these techniques; then apply these techniques to contemporary assessments for which state and federal governments are seeking comments by scientists and citizens. This course does not count as BIOS or science credit for College of Science majors. It is a PHIL course and will satisfy the second PHIL requirement on change of cross-list or count as general elective credit only.

BIOS 50545. Bio-Medical Ethics, Scientific Evidence and Public Health Risk

(3 -0- 3) 
The course will survey ethical and scientific issues associated with current public health problems such as pollution-induced cancers, occupational injury and death, and inadequate emphasis on disease prevention, nutrition, and environmental health. This course does not count as science credit for College of Science under- graduate majors. Cross-listed with PHIL 43708. This course counts as a general elective credit only for students in the College of Science.

GH 40440. A.I.D.S.

(3 -0- 3)
This course will explore the phenomenon of AIDS, including characteristics of the worldwide AIDS pandemic, the virus (HIV) itself, the immune system and HIV, methods of diagnosis, prevention, treatment, and basic epidemiology as it relates to AIDS. This is an advanced course in infectious diseases designed for premedical majors and other interested students. Laboratory experience in genetics and cell biology is required Fall.

GH 46497. Directed Readings in Global Health

(V -V- V)
This course is used to address specific interests of students or gaps in their training.

GH 50545. Bio-Medical Ethics, Scientific Evidence and Public Health Risk

(3 -0- 3) Shrader-Frechette
The course will survey ethical and scientific issues associated with current public health problems such as pollution-induced cancers, occupational injury and death, and inadequate emphasis on disease prevention, nutrition, and environmental health.

SUS 20010. Sustainability: Principles and Practices

(3 -0- 3) Hellmann
This interdisciplinary course explores the challenges of environmental sustain- ability (often defined as “meeting the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs”) in cultural, social, historical, ethical, technical, and aesthetic dimensions. Taught jointly by professors from the natural sciences, humanities, engineering, and social sciences, the course aims to instill broad, integrative and critical thinking about contemporary global environmental problems whose solutions will depend on multidisciplinary approaches. This gateway course to the minor in Sustainability Studies is open to all students; no prerequisites in science or engineering are required for enrollment. Requirements include mid-term and final examinations, short written responses to readings, and a final reflection paper.