Biological Sciences Study Abroad Course Descriptions

The courses listed below are pre-approved biological science courses offered at various Notre Dame study abroad locations.

More information about course groupings, academic requirements, available majors, and sample curriculum can be found in the Undergraduate Bulletin of Information 2015-2016.

Fremantle, Australia

BIOS 14112. Coastal and Marine Systems

(3-0-3) 

This unit provides a comprehensive study of the coastal and marine environment with particular reference to Western Australia. An understanding of the dynamic processes operating within coastal environments is used as a basis to an examination of the coastal geomorphology of Western Australia. A series of field trips and exercises complement the theoretical component to this unit.

BIOS 24491. Topics in Ecology: Australia

(3-0-3)

This unit is aimed at providing a basic understanding of ecology in the context of the Australian environment. Ecology is the study of a large number of interacting factors and their impact on plants and animals. The course will demonstrate how an understanding of ecology is an essential pre-requisite to developing systems to restore the environment and prevent further environmental damage; it will also provide some clues as to how humans can fit into ecosystems. Environmental problems usually result from disruption of the natural ecological processes that drive ecosystems. The fact that ecology is all about interactions makes it fascinating to study but it also means the subject is difficult to understand and to teach. For this reason the most useful, entertaining and efficient way to understand the science of ecology is to use a case study approach; that is, to look at real world examples of ecosystems and real world environmental problems that have been caused by disruption of ecological processes.


Perth, Austraila

BIOS 24216. The Climate System

(3-0-3)

Taught as ENVT2220 - 'The Climate System' at a host institution. The physical nature of the atmosphere of the Earth and its interaction with land and water are cornerstones of environmental science. Based on fundamental atmospheric processes the dynamics of climate and aspects of weather are explained with both short- and long-term aspects of global climate change. Students are introduced to the information and data used in developing synoptic charts. Climate dynamics are covered through the interpretation of global circulation model results which leads to a critical analysis of climate change scenarios.

BIOS 24418. Molecular Genetics

(3-0-3) 

Taught as GENE 2230 "Molecular Genetics" at the host institution. This unit focuses on genetic events at the level of the gene across the wide spectrum of haploid and diploid organisms. It includes topics such as chromosome structure; gene families and mobile genetic elements; generation of genetic variation; DNA mutation; developmental genetics in plants and animals; the generation of genetic diversity and the evolution of the prokaryotic and eukaryotic chromosomes. The unit also covers natural selection and applications to plant and animal breeding, and the artificial generation of novel genotypes (genetic engineering).

BIOS 24475. Marine Systems

(3-0-3) 

Taught as SCIE2204 - 'Marine Systems' at a host institution. This unit provides an introduction to the multidisciplinary aspects of marine science. Using the framework of the local WA marine environment, it outlines how the multidisciplinary aspects of marine science are essential in understanding and managing such an ecosystem. Aspects covered include oceanography, geology and geomorphology and marine biology. Students obtain an introduction to the multidisciplinary aspects of marine science; and develop an understanding of the principles of oceanography, geology and geomorphology and how marine organisms interact with the environment.

BIOS 34205. Animal Function and Structure

(3-0-3) 

Taught at a host institution. Animals provide evidence of the many and varied solutions to the challenges imposed on them by their changing environment. This unit builds on knowledge of the diversity of animals and interprets the differences and similarities within the framework of their evolutionary relationships to each other. While sometimes very different, animals provide many fascinating examples of solutions to the problems of gaining nutrients, removing wastes and surviving to reproduce the next generation. The unit provides a broad overview of animal function and structure and integrates this information with that introduced in earlier units of the major. It is a step leading to the units of the third year of the major where the underlying fundamental mechanisms and processes are revealed.

BIOS 34312. Ecology I

(V-0-V)

Introduction to the foundations of ecology: abiotic factors regulating populations, interactions between individuals, characteristics of populations and communities, and the complexity of eco-systems. These basic concepts are studied from theoretical and practical perspectives.

BIOS 34305. Evolutionary Processes

(3-0-3) 

Taught as ANIM3362 - 'Evolutionary Processes' at a host institution. This unit covers the basic principles of evolutionary theory with special emphasis on the mechanisms that generate the diversity of life. It examines the genetic structure of populations, factors that maintain variation within populations and cause of divergence among populations, the origin of species and methods of phylogenetic analysis. The emphasis is on the integration of fundamental concepts, approaches to solving problems and the application of evolutionary ideas and methods to questions in fields such as ecology, behavior, conservation biology and systematics.

BIOS 34309. Human Reproductive Biology

(3-0-3) 

Taught as ANHB2216 "Human Reproductive Biology" at host institution. This unit builds on first-year human biology to develop the structural and functional basis of human reproduction including structure and function of the reproductive organs, gametogenesis, fertilization, early embryogenesis, fetal development and preparation for birth, maternal adaptations to pregnancy and reproductive aging. Particular emphasis is placed on the hormonal control of reproduction. This information is then used to examine social issues including human sexuality, infertility, birth control, the cause and prevention of malformation and the impact of new techniques in reproductive biology. This unit aims to provide students with a sound understanding of human reproduction in light of our evolutionary history, culture and society.

BIOS 34312. Ecology I

(V-0-V) 

UDLA #: BL 325 : Introduction to the foundations of ecology: abiotic factors regulating populations, interactions between individuals, characteristics of populations and communities, and the complexity of eco-systems. These basic concepts are studied from theoretical and practical perspectives.

BIOS 34321. Australian Vegetation

(3-0-3) 

This unit presents a quantitative and descriptive analysis of the unique vegetation and flora of Australia. Specific attention is given to the way Australian vegetation is classified for inventory and to patterns of physiognomic structure, floristic assemblages and vegetation distribution in relation to climate, soils and disturbance (e.g. fire, grazing, logging). The unit includes application of modern numerical methods to the analysis of communities and their interactions and application to historical problems in ecology and biogeography. More broadly, vegetation types and definitions are discussed in the context of current issues (e.g. What is an old-growth forest? How will plant communities respond to climate change?). Students must choose between two streams for the unit. Stream A includes a week-long field trip to familiarize students with methods for vegetation survey including structure and plant diversity, within the context of climate conditions, evidence of fire history, landscape attributes and soil type. Stream B substitutes the field trip with a dedicated module focused on simulation modeling of community dynamics and interactions. Data collected on the field trip are analyzed in subsequent laboratory sessions by all students.

BIOS 34338. Human Neurobiology

(3-0-3) 

Outcomes: Students learn (1) the neuronal basis of the functioning of the nervous system; (2) the basic regional topography and gross anatomy of the nervous system, its development and blood supply; (3) the relationship between structure and function, illustrated by the major motor and sensory systems; (4) to appreciate the contemporary areas of neuroscience such as plasticity, regeneration, ageing and imaging; and (5) how neuroanatomy is used and related to neuroscience research. Content: This unit considers the development, gross anatomy and cellular organization of the brain and spinal cord and examines the structural and functional organization of major sensory and motor pathways. Attention is also paid to an understanding of some contemporary issues in neuroscience including neural plasticity, memory, ageing and regeneration. The evolutionary perspective is added by an introduction to comparative structure. Laboratory classes allow both self-paced and supervised examination of the human brain. Examples of the increasingly complex methods for observing and studying the human brain are introduced. Students are taught about ethical dilemmas in neuroscience brought about by greater knowledge of the link between anatomy and behavior, consciousness, evolution and genetics. Plagiarism and ethical scholarship are taught in relation to the open book essay. Students are introduced to current hot topics in neuroscience research.

BIOS 34339. Comparative Neurobiology

(3-0-3) 

This unit deals with the development and mature organization of the nervous system, as well as its capacity for repair after damage in a wide range of animals. It examines the complex 'wiring' of the brain and how this organization relates to an animal's behavior and its environmental needs. As examples, the unit includes studies of deep-sea fish and those birds and mammals which span the aquatic and terrestrial habitats. Animals with highly specialized senses, such as owls, are also considered. The laboratory classes provide practical experience in the examination of the central nervous systems.

BIOS 34344. Vertebrate Human Physiology

(V-0-V) 

Physiological functions and processes at the level of organs and organ systems, oriented primarily toward humans.

BIOS 34399. Comparative Neurobiology

(3-0-3) 

This unit deals with the development and mature organization of the nervous system, as well as its capacity for repair after damage in a wide range of animals. It examines the complex 'wiring' of the brain and how this organization relates to an animal's behavior and its environmental needs. As examples, the unit includes studies of deep-sea fish and those birds and mammals which span the aquatic and terrestrial habitats. Animals with highly specialized senses, such as owls, are also considered. The laboratory classes provide practical experience in the examination of the central nervous systems.

BIOS 34404. Vertebrate Biology 

(V-0-V) 

Taught at host institution. The fundamental features of vertebrate organization are studied. The origins of the major classes, fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals are explored. The diversity in form and physiology of current vertebrates is considered in the light of the fossil record and correlated climatic changes over geological time to illuminate our current understanding of vertebrate phylogeny. Modern morphological and genetic approaches of phylogenetic analysis are compared and evaluated.

BIOS 34407. Animal Science

(3-0-3) 

This course is taught as ZO 3020 Behavioral Ecology at Trinity College in Dublin. This lecture and practical course gives a broad grounding in the theoretical and practical basis of behavioral ecology. The subject is introduced with an historical overview of the basic concepts behind the study of animal behavior. Following this, topics covered in detail include how animals obtain food, avoid predators, breed and communicate. The practical work provides students with experience in studying behavior in both the field and the laboratory, and provides training in behavioral recording techniques. It guides students through appropriate statistical analysis of the data sets collected in the practicals, and in their presentation in written form. It includes work with live animals both in the laboratory and at Dublin Zoo. When this course is offered at Perth, Australia, the course description is as follows. This unit begins with concepts of the behavior and welfare of animals because society now demands that students be thoroughly trained in these areas. This is followed by a consideration of the principles of animal physiology and ecology as a basis for understanding how both native and domestic animals are distributed within Western Australia and how they cope with, and adapt to, their environment. Growth and development, reproduction, genetics and nutrition are considered as the underlying biology for production (meat, wool, milk, eggs) in domestic animals and for the management and conservation of native animals. Animals' requirements for nutrients are considered in relation to their supply of food under natural, extensive conditions on the one hand and under controlled, intensive conditions on the other. When taught in Dublin, Ireland the course ZOOL 20020 Animal Behavior at UCD; A wide-ranging review, including insects, vertebrates and Man, of significant and fundamental aspects of animal behavior. Phenomena dealt with in detail include: insect chemoreception with special reference to chemical cues, interpretation of deer behavior in the context of game theory, and the role of pheromones in human behavior.

BIOS 34411. Biometrics

(3-0-3) 

This unit introduces the primary tools of statistics with carefully chosen examples from the biological sciences, focusing on why they work, how an appropriate analysis for a problem is chosen and how to check the reliability. Beginning with a review of probability and distribution, the unit involves estimation of population parameters, comparison of two samples, analysis of categorical data, analysis of variance, regression and the extension of the last two to multiple-factor experiments. Through lectures and tutorials with computers, students learn the basic principles of biometrics and master the primary tools of statistics as applied to biological sciences. Students are expected to understand the basic principles of biometrics, e.g. apply primary statistic tools in biological research; evaluate the strength and limitations of learned statistical analysis; and explain the hypotheses, statistical analysis and conclusions based on the statistical principles in a convincing way.

BIOS 34419. Immunology

(3-0-3) 

Antigens, antibody structure and function, B-cells, T-cells, MHC, diversity, cytokines, complement, inflammation, immunity to viruses, bacteria and parasitic infections, polyclonal, monoclonal, and phage display antibodies.

BIOS 34421. Comparative Physiology

(3-0-3) 

Taught at a host institution. This course uses examples drawn from the animal kingdom. Living animals adjust their physiological mechanisms to successfully deal with the environment which is their natural habitat. Various adaptations are explored based on, for example, the adaptations of the respiratory system that enable some mammals to dive deep into the ocean to feed, the adaptation of the excretory system that enable animals to survive in arid conditions. The systems are compared in mammals, reptiles, fishes and birds.

BIOS 34428. Bioinformatics

(3-0-3) 

This unit has been designed to provide students with a background to how DNA and protein sequence data (as well as protein structure data) are generated, stored, analyzed and retrieved using publicly available tools including the Internet. Students are given hands-on experience in the use of bioinformatic tools and public databases. Further experience is given in the visualization of three-dimensional protein and DNA structures using molecular graphics, and basic programming skills. Students emerge with an understanding of the basic biological and computer science underlying bioinformatics, together with the ability to utilize bioinformatic tools.

BIOS 34455. Ecological Processes

(3-0-3) 

Taught at a host institution. This unit builds on knowledge of ecological processes acquired at Level 2. The main academic objectives of this unit are (1) to develop a deeper understanding of ecological processes, both biotic and abiotic, across marine, freshwater and terrestrial ecosystems; (2) to develop a deeper understanding of the interconnected and synergistic nature of ecological processes; (3) to be able to apply this deeper understanding when evaluating and interpreting contemporary environmental change; and (4) to be able to design appropriate scientific research programs to address contemporary environmental problems.

BIOS 34459. Global Climate Change and Biodiversity

(3-0-3) 

This unit focuses on the concept that climate change can drive the evolution of biological diversity. This unit aims to explain the atmospheric processes that regulate the Earth's climate; the role of climate change in the evolution of the world's ecosystems; the human-induced changes that are occurring in the atmosphere; how these changes effect the global climate which in turn effects biodiversity; the challenges of biodiversity conservation under climate change. Emphasis is placed on understanding the links between the atmosphere, climate and the world's ecosystems; how changes in climate can force species losses, migration and adaptation; what can be learned from vegetation response to past climate changes; the predicted impacts to biological diversity under projected greenhouse climates; and the conservation efforts that are required to mitigate these impacts.

BIOS 34465. Herpetology

(3-0-3) 

Taught as ANIM3324 - 'Herpetology' at a host institution. This unit examines basic aspects of the biology of an important group of vertebrate animals: amphibians and reptiles. It provides a theoretical and practical background to herpetology including taxonomy, biogeography, ecology and physiology in a global context, and provides more detailed information for Australian, and especially Western Australian, species.

BIOS 34556. Histology

(3-0-3) 

The approach is to provide an extensive account of the histologic structure of human organs and how they function within human organ systems. One major learning outcome is to understand the histology of human organs within the context of cell biology in preparation for studying pathology and advanced cell biology and molecular biology.


Santiago, Chile

BIOS 24211. Agricultural Ecology

(3-0-3)

Taught as AGL202 - 'Ecologia Agropecuraria' at a host institution. The overall objective of the course is to understand the basic theoretical principles of ecological sciences, and the usefulness of ecology in the management and conservation of natural resources. It also aims to stimulate the capacity for analysis and critical skills regarding diagnosis, analysis and solutions to environmental problems typical of agro-forestry field.


Hong Kong, China

BIOS 34312. Ecology I

(V-0-V)

UDLA #: BL 325 : Introduction to the foundations of ecology: abiotic factors regulating populations, interactions between individuals, characteristics of populations and communities, and the complexity of eco-systems. These basic concepts are studied from theoretical and practical perspectives. 
 

BIOS 34422. Marine Ecology

(3-0-3) 

Taught as ANIM 3314 "Marine Ecology" at host institution. This unit begins with a brief global view of the oceans and features of sea water that influence biological processes. The unit then deals in detail with how ecologists propose that the structures of marine communities are organized by considering examples of experimental studies of natural communities in sandy and rocky beaches, coral reefs, sand and mud flats, mangroves and the deep sea. It describes interactions between humans and large reptiles and mammals. Practical work comprises supervised investigations involving the sampling and design of experiments, analysis of data and preparation of a report.

BIOS 44150. Evolutionary Biology

(3-0-3) 

Taught as BIOL 4010 - 'Evolutionary Biology' at a host institution. The course covers various topics, including evidence/pattern of evolution, Darwinian natural selection, mutation and genetic variation, classification and evolution, estimating evolutionary trees, history of life, evolution of genes and genomes, and evolution and development.


Oxford University, England

BIOS 34340. Membrane Biology

(3-0-3) 

Structural and functional aspects of the biology of cells are addressed.

BIOS 34341. Cell Biology

(3-0-3) 

Structural and functional aspects of the biology of cells are addressed.


London, England

BIOS 44498. Special Studies

(V-0-V) 

Participation in this course requires the pre-approval of the College of Science. It offers students the opportunity to conduct independent research while participating in an off campus program of studies. When taught at UCD Dublin, Ireland the course description is: SCI 30010 Introduction to Scientific Research at UCD; This module introduces students to the principles of scientific research through attachment to an active research group in the College of Science. Students will become active members of a research group and work under the direction of the group's Principal Investigator. Students will learn about the research focus of the group and conduct independent research into the scientific literature of relevance to the group's activity. They will shadow a member of the research team in the laboratory and master one basic and one advanced laboratory skill. Based on the research activity of the research group, students will learn about developing a research hypothesis and designing experiments to test the hypothesis. Using data generated by themselves and/or the group, students will learn how to analyze the research data and, where appropriate, how to determine whether the differences between control and test data are significantly different from each other. Students will also learn how to write a scientific abstract and a scientific report as well how to make a scientific presentation.


Dublin, Ireland - University College Dublin

BIOS 24113. Animal Nutrition I

(3-0-3)

Taught as ANSC 20020 Animal Nutrition I at UCD; This module is designed for students in Animal Science/Animal Science Equine/Animal & Crop Production/Dairy Business. The module is designed to give students an understanding of nutrition for both ruminant and monogastric farm animals. Topics dealt with include the following: structure and functioning of the digestive system, the processes of digestion and absorption plus digestive disorders; metabolism of nutrients, especially in relation to energy, protein, minerals and vitamins plus an introduction to metabolic disorders; nutrient requirements and systems of energy and protein evaluation of feeds; dry matter intake; feed additives; feed processing; major classes of feedstuffs.

BIOS 24116. Nutritional Physiology

(3-0-3)

FDSC30120 Nutritional Physiology at UCD. This is an introductory course in nutrition, mainly in the human context but with reference to other mammalian groups as well. Following an overview of the structure and function of the human gut and associated organs, the course focuses on the macronutrients (carbohydrate, fat, protein and alcohol) and their digestion, absorption and metabolism. The significance of fermentative digestion is considered from a comparative viewpoint. The course concludes with an appraisal of some research techniques relevant to human nutrition. Students also undertake an assessment of their own diet using weighed recording over a seven day period. One diet assessment and one 2-hr written exam.

BIOS 24215. Global Environment

(3-0-3)

Taught at a host institution. BIOL 20010 Global Environment at UCD; How are we going to feed 9 billion people in a warmer world? This course addresses the global variation in agriculture and its dependence on climate. Agriculture is an important contributor to greenhouse gas emissions, but it is also very vulnerable to the impacts of climate change. You will learn to explain what climate change is and how it affects agriculture globally. Based on this understanding, you will be able to explore mitigation and adaptation options for agriculture with regard to climate change. The course is meant to be one that allows you to develop your research techniques and the sourcing and critical evaluation of information about agriculture and climate change. We will discuss and read about things like bioenergy, livestock management options, soil management options, diversification of the agricultural enterprise and the interaction of the rural and urban environment. The essay for the course will be written over the semester in several smaller assignments that will be discussed throughout the course in tutorials. What you learn in this module will equip you with the knowledge and tools necessary to integrate information from this and other modules to make your own contribution to feed 9 billion people in a warmer world - be it as a farmer, a scientist or an informed consumer.

BIOS 24241. Molecular Cellular Biology

(4-0-4)

CELB 20040 Cell and Molecular Biology 1 - Principles at UCD; The structure and function of cells underlies our understanding of many areas of biology, including human health, plant science and environmental science. The module covers the principles of cell theory and the basic structure of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. Lectures will introduce the key molecules involved in maintaining cell function, and the pathways and processes to which they contribute. This module explores fundamental cellular features such as energy provision, compartmentation, membrane function, protein synthesis and folding, cell communication, and transport pathways between distinct subcellular locations. In addition, the module will address signal transduction, cell division, cell death mechanisms, and how these contribute to diseases such as cancer. Due consideration will be given to the general structure and arrangement of organelles of the endomembrane system, plastids, macromolecular machines, the extracellular matrix and the cytoskeleton, in addition to the molecules associated with each of these. Associated laboratory classes will complement the lectures, and will provide experience of observing cells, visualizing subcellular components and making relevant interpretations. When taught at Perth, Australia: Taught as SCIE1106 - 'Molecular Biology of the Cell'. This is an introductory unit that explores prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell structure and function at the physiological and molecular levels. A strong emphasis is placed on applications in biomedicine and biotechnology. The unit builds on concepts introduced in BIOL1130 Frontiers in Biology (formerly BIOL1130 Core Concepts in Biology) and ANHB1101 Human Biology I: Becoming Human. The first part of the unit covers DNA, RNA and protein structure; DNA replication; gene expression and its regulation; and recombinant DNA technology. The second part of the unit deals with the cell cycle and cell differentiation; cell structure and compartmentation; the structure of biological membranes and strategies used to move molecules across these membranes; and intercellular communication. Applications of cell and molecular biology in microbiology, disease diagnosis and therapy, and genetic engineering are discussed in the final part of the unit. Practical classes illustrate fundamental techniques in cell and molecular biology, and tutorials discuss recent advances in microbiology, physiology and biochemistry.

BIOS 24250. Genetics

(V-0-V)

Course covers Mendelian, Molecular, and Applied Molecular genetics.

BIOS 34302. Functional Morphology and Biomechanics

(3-0-3)

Taught as ZOOL 30010 at host institution. This module explores the composition of animals and the ways in which they move. Bone physics and skeletal mechanics, the basics of animal biomechanics and biophysics form integral parts of this unit developed as we discuss the ways that we can study animal movement. Biomechanics dates back to Aristotle but major advances correlated with technology now allow us to precisely investigate the way that birds fly, horses run and fish swim. Concepts of scale -- what happens when things get bigger -- and gaits are introduced. Some basic knowledge of mathematics is an advantage to this unit.

BIOS 34307. Evolutionary Biology

(3-0-3) 

Quantitative genetics; Gene flow in populations; Genetic drift; Heterozygosity; Heredity; Selection Models, Fitness/Relative Fitness; Molecular Evolution; Evolutionary Ecology; Species Concept; Speciation.

BIOS 34308. Principles of Crop Science

(3-0-3)

CPSC 20030 Principles of Crop Science at UCD; Overview of crop production systems, concepts in crop production, consideration of the various factors involved in crop production and their effect on yield and quality. The course includes cereal crops, root crops and grassland. Areas covered on cereal and root crops include crop rotation, crop establishment methods, crop nutrition and crop protection. In grassland the areas covered include grazing establishment and management and forage conservation and forage quality. Aspects of crop quality and improvement are also outlined for some crops.

BIOS 34313. Plant and Soil Interactions in the Wetlands

(3-0-3)

A 4 credit course that addresses geochemistry of wetland soils, the rhizsphere, nutrient cycling, and the behavior of heavy metals and metalloids in soil and plants.

BIOS 34314. Systems Ecology

(3-0-3) 

Taught as ENVB 30010 "Systems Ecology" at host institution. The course of 21 lectures covers key ecosystem concepts in freshwater, marine and terrestrial systems. These include food chains; food webs; trophic pyramids, functional groups and energy/nutrient inputs and cycling. The drivers and processes of the major components of global change, including human population growth, climate change, elevated amounts of nitrogen deposition, eutrophication, acidification and land use change, and their effects on the functioning of ecosystems are covered.

BIOS 34315. Wildlife/Fisheries Management

(3-0-3) 

The course of 21 lectures covers key ecosystem concepts in freshwater, marine and terrestrial systems. These include food chains; food webs; trophic pyramids, functional groups and energy/nutrient inputs and cycling. The drivers and processes of the major components of global change, including human population growth, climate change, elevated amounts of nitrogen deposition, eutrophication, acidification and land use change, and their effects on the functioning of ecosystems are covered.

BIOS 34316. Plant Population Biology

(3-0-3) 

A 4 credit course on plant origins and development; modular nature of plant growth; population and metapopulation structure and dynamics; demography and conservation of rare populations.

BIOS 34318. Ecology: Population/Community

(3-0-3) 

ENVB 20010 Ecology: Populations and Communities at UCD; The course of 24 lectures and associated practical classes covers general concepts of population ecology as well as habitats of terrestrial, marine and freshwater environments and the interactions between these habitats and their associated fauna. Students are introduced to principles of population ecology and the potential for exponential growth which has to be controlled by environmental resistance. They obtain a detailed outline of fundamental factors that determine the structure and function of terrestrial, freshwater and marine ecosystems.

BIOS 34327. Wildlife Management

(3-0-3) 

ZOOL 40270 Wildlife Management at UCD; This module deals with the theory of conservation, control and exploitation of wild animal populations, including the practical techniques of monitoring and data collection. The question of harvesting and the conflicts between commercial and recreational use is also addressed. The importance of population modeling, genetic techniques and taxonomy in the development of management strategies is emphasized.

BIOS 34340. Membrane Biology

(3-0-3) 

Structural and functional aspects of the biology of cells are addressed.

BIOS 34342. Developmental Biology

(3-0-3)

Taught as CELB 30010 "Animal Development" at host institution. The purpose of the course is to introduce students to the subject of animal development. The course describes the morphology of early development (from fertilization to gastrulation) in a number of animals and focuses on the molecular basis of antero-posterior patterning in early Drosophila embryos. It also covers germ cell specification, gametogenesis, sex determination and the role of cell-cell signaling in developmental processes. The course emphasizes the concept of "differential gene expression from the same nuclear repertoire" (Gilbert, 2003) as a basic theme in development, and stresses the importance of experimental strategies for determination of gene expression. The course also emphasizes the experimental significance of model organisms for study of developmental processes, and encourages students to critically assess the advantages and limitations of the most popular models.

BIOS 34343. Vertebrate Human Physiology

(3-0-3)

Comparative anatomy and physiology of invertebrate and vertebrate systems (digestion; respiration/circulation; excretion/osmoregulation; reproduction). Enzymology and metabolism. Correlation between form and function. Adaptation to environment.

BIOS 34344. Vertebrate Human Physiology

(V-0-V) 

Physiological functions and processes at the level of organs and organ systems, oriented primarily toward humans.

BIOS 34349. Cellular Biology Lab

(1-0-1) 

Taught at a host institution. Structural and functional aspects of the biology of cells are addressed.

BIOS 34403. Invertebrate Biology 

(3-0-3) 

Taught as ZO 3051 ' Invertebrate Form and Function' This team-taught course provides a detailed consideration of the structure, life cycles and general biology of the invertebrate groups. The practical work involves observation using living specimens and demonstrations of material from the Zoological collections.

BIOS 34404. Vertebrate Biology 

(V-0-V) 

Taught at host institution. The fundamental features of vertebrate organization are studied. The origins of the major classes, fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals are explored. The diversity in form and physiology of current vertebrates is considered in the light of the fossil record and correlated climatic changes over geological time to illuminate our current understanding of vertebrate phylogeny. Modern morphological and genetic approaches of phylogenetic analysis are compared and evaluated.

BIOS 34406. Arthropoda

(3-0-3) 

ZOOL 30020 at UCD and Z) 3052 at Trinity for 1.5 credits . This third level course deals with diversity, classification, biology, functional morphology, life cycles and strategies for survival of the phylum Arthropoda, the largest and most successful animal group. Complimentary practical material reinforces theory concepts and exposes students to the taxonomic value of voucher material through instruction on collection and curation techniques. Presentation of a collection of mounted/pinned specimens is a component of the practical assessment.

BIOS 34407. Animal Science

(3-0-3) 

This course is taught as ZO 3020 Behavioral Ecology at Trinity College in Dublin. This lecture and practical course gives a broad grounding in the theoretical and practical basis of behavioral ecology. The subject is introduced with an historical overview of the basic concepts behind the study of animal behavior. Following this, topics covered in detail include how animals obtain food, avoid predators, breed and communicate. The practical work provides students with experience in studying behavior in both the field and the laboratory, and provides training in behavioral recording techniques. It guides students through appropriate statistical analysis of the data sets collected in the practicals, and in their presentation in written form. It includes work with live animals both in the laboratory and at Dublin Zoo. When this course is offered at Perth, Australia, the course description is as follows. This unit begins with concepts of the behavior and welfare of animals because society now demands that students be thoroughly trained in these areas. This is followed by a consideration of the principles of animal physiology and ecology as a basis for understanding how both native and domestic animals are distributed within Western Australia and how they cope with, and adapt to, their environment. Growth and development, reproduction, genetics and nutrition are considered as the underlying biology for production (meat, wool, milk, eggs) in domestic animals and for the management and conservation of native animals. Animals' requirements for nutrients are considered in relation to their supply of food under natural, extensive conditions on the one hand and under controlled, intensive conditions on the other. When taught in Dublin, Ireland the course ZOOL 20020 Animal Behavior at UCD; A wide-ranging review, including insects, vertebrates and Man, of significant and fundamental aspects of animal behavior. Phenomena dealt with in detail include: insect chemoreception with special reference to chemical cues, interpretation of deer behavior in the context of game theory, and the role of pheromones in human behavior.

BIOS 34418. Molecular Genetics and Biotechnology

(3-0-3) 

Taught as BMOL 30030 "Regulation of Gene Expression" at the host institution. This module will be an advanced course on the transmission of genetic information. The primary focus will be to obtain a detailed understanding of the general and more specific mechanisms involved in the control of gene expression in both prokaryotic and in eukaryotic systems. The course will begin with the general mechanism of transcription, RNA polymerases and the various classes of transcription factors. Thereafter, specific aspects pertaining to general and specialized mechanisms of gene expression and transcriptional regulation in various prokaryotic and eukaryotic systems will be examined.

BIOS 34419. Immunology

(3-0-3) 

Antigens, antibody structure and function, B cells, T-cells, MHC, diversity, cytokines, complement, inflammation, immunity to viruses, bacteria and parasitic infections, polyclonal, monoclonal, and phage display antibodies.

BIOS 34421. Comparative Physiology

(3-0-3) 

Taught at a host institution. This course uses examples drawn from the animal kingdom. Living animals adjust their physiological mechanisms to successfully deal with the environment which is their natural habitat. Various adaptations are explored based on, for example, the adaptations of the respiratory system that enable some mammals to dive deep into the ocean to feed, the adaptation of the excretory system that enable animals to survive in arid conditions. The systems are compared in mammals, reptiles, fishes and birds.

BIOS 34423. Genomics

(3-0-3) 

BMOL 30020 at UCD. This module will identify the main biochemical causes of disease and, in so doing, aims to provide the student with an understanding of an initial rationale for the treatment of the particular disease in question. Amongst the topics to be discussed will be retrovirus-mediated disease (Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome; AIDS), bacterial-mediated diseases (e.g TB, MRSA), prion-diseases or transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs; e.g CJD); Neurodegenerative diseases, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, cancer.

BIOS 34531. Molecular Genetics

(3-0-3) 

BMOL 20090 Molecular Genetics and Biotechnology at UCD; In living cells nucleic acids direct both self-replication and synthesis of proteins. DNA also undergoes mutation and recombination, which ultimately generate biodiversity and allow evolution to proceed. The course will cover the basics of these fundamental biological processes and explain how this knowledge is exploited in recombinant DNA technology. Specific areas include: nucleic acid structure; DNA replication; mutation and repair; transcription and translation; control of gene expression; gene cloning, DNA sequencing and genetic engineering. The lecture course will be assessed by an end-of-semester examination. In addition, students will work in groups to design web-based projects, or "Wikis" that explore selected topics from the course in depth. Students will learn how to design interactive information pages (resembling Wikipedia), and how to incorporate images and animations. Grades will be awarded based on individual contributions to the group project.

BIOS 34628. Ecological and Environmental Microbiology

(3-0-3) 

ENVB 30100 Ecological and Environmental Microbiology at UCD; On completion of this module students should be able to: Appreciate the role and significance of physicochemical factors in the environment on microbiological processes and diversity. Describe the concept of cycling in the global environment and appreciate the importance of microorganisms in mediating cycling processes. Apply concepts pertaining to the physical environment to aquatic and soil ecosystems and to assess how these factors interact with microbial populations. Describe the methods used for the bacteriological testing of water. Appreciate how microbial populations can be manipulated for degradation of waste material.

BIOS 44100. Conservation Biology

(3-0-3) 

ZOOL 40080 Conservation Biology at UCD; This module will explore the science that underpins the practice of nature conservation. Following a review of the factors currently threatening global biodiversity, such as habitat loss and fragmentation, over exploitation and the impact of invasive alien species, we will look at how conservation biology has developed as a multi-disciplinary approach to understanding and tackling these threats. Using international case studies, we will investigate some scientific approaches, both in-situ and ex-situ, to practical conservation, including the use of endangered species recovery analysis and the development of species and habitat action plans.

BIOS 44105. Global Biodiversity

(3-0-3) 

ZOOL 40130 Global Biodiversity and Heritage at UCD; This course explores the meaning of biodiversity and its origins in the natural world. Initial lectures deal with how biodiversity is distributed across the globe and the possible mechanisms that have given rise to the observed patterns. The major part of the course consists of discussing why biodiversity is important and topics such as the functions of species within ecosystems and the conservation practice are covered. We will discuss the role of World Heritage Sites in biodiversity conservation and issues arising from the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment.

BIOS 44169. Biological Invasions

(3-0-3) 

Taught as ZOOL 40280 Biological Invasions at UCD; The student should appreciate the wide diversity of invasive species and the role of different sectors in invasions, recognize the characteristics of invasive species and invaded habitats and the challenges of reducing the threats, understand the role of evidence based research in managing ecological threats, indicate the factors responsible for invasions, source and review the ecological impacts and mitigating factors, evaluate and critically appraise methods of control to achieve sustainability. Work to source and appraise information on case studies to address a key concept presented.

BIOS 44179. Field Lab

(2-0-2) 

AESC 40210 Core Field Skills at UCD; Essential applied field skills, including the identification of Irish birds and mammals using direct visual and aural methods, and indirect signs and symptoms, are covered in this module. Field study techniques, including the trapping, marking, handling and release of target species are described, with practical field demonstration of a range of field study methods.

BIOS 44498. Special Studies

(V-0-V) 

Participation in this course requires the pre-approval of the College of Science. It offers students the opportunity to conduct independent research while participating in an off campus program of studies. When taught at UCD Dublin, Ireland the course description is: SCI 30010 Introduction to Scientific Research at UCD; This module introduces students to the principles of scientific research through attachment to an active research group in the College of Science. Students will become active members of a research group and work under the direction of the group's Principal Investigator. Students will learn about the research focus of the group and conduct independent research into the scientific literature of relevance to the group's activity. They will shadow a member of the research team in the laboratory and master one basic and one advanced laboratory skill. Based on the research activity of the research group, students will learn about developing a research hypothesis and designing experiments to test the hypothesis. Using data generated by themselves and/or the group, students will learn how to analyze the research data and, where appropriate, how to determine whether the differences between control and test data are significantly different from each other. Students will also learn how to write a scientific abstract and a scientific report as well how to make a scientific presentation.

BIOS 54531. Molecular Genetics and Biotechnology

(3-0-3) 

Taught as BMOL 20010 "Molecular Genetics and Biotechnology" at host institution. This module forms part of stage 2 of the core curriculum in Biochemistry, Microbiology, Pharmacology, Genetics, Neuroscience and Cell and Molecular Biology BSc degree programs. The course examines the structure and function of DNA in prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms. Areas covered: early landmarks in molecular genetics and the discovery of DNA; structures of nucleotides and nucleic acids; DNA replication, transcription and translation into proteins; cracking the genetic code; DNA mutations and repair mechanisms; control of gene expression; recombinant DNA technology and genetic engineering. Practical classes are designed to introduce students to the fundamental techniques in molecular biology. A student must take all parts of the course.


Dublin, Ireland - Trinity College

BIOS 24302. Fundamentals of Genetics Lab

(1-0-1)

This 4-week laboratory course introduces students to the genetics of the common bakers' yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Topics examined will include the life cycle of haploid and diploid cells, mating between haploid cells and the ability of yeast strains to carry out fermentation of sugars to alcohol. Students will also carry out a large scale lager brew using industrial lager strains of yeast. Also includes basic experiments in Drosophila Genetics. Note: This course has been taken for credit before, but the number on the PDF (BIOS 24242) does not apply. She will combine this lab with another to get credit for a more advanced lab (BIOS 21250).

BIOS 24303. Fundamentals of Genetics

(3-0-3)

This course combines several Trinity courses, including Eukaryotic Genome Structure, Human Genetics, Mutation and Recombinant DNA. comprises a series of eight lectures and four tutorials. The first half of the course concentrates on the sequence organization of eukaryotic genomes, investigating the various sequence classes, with particular emphasis on mammalian genomes. Tutorial topics are based upon topical reviews or publications, and may range, for example, from The Human Telomere Transferase Enzyme, to The Unusual Organization and Processing of Genomic DNA in Ciliates, to Automated DNA Sequencing. Another series of lectures explores human disease causing genes. In 16 lectures we review the spectrum of genetic disease, from congenital disease syndromes with recognizable chromosomal defects, to monogenetic and multi-factorial conditions, and work toward the localization and isolation of disease genes through a detailed consideration of the nature of mutation and the development of the human genetic map. Emphasis on very recent technological developments. A third section deals with the causes of sequence change in DNA and a discussion of the consequences. Chemical mutagenesis, carcinogenesis, effects of radiation and some nucleic acid chemistry. In another series of of eight lectures we explore the various methodologies for the isolation and analysis of nucleic acids from a variety of sources and the extensive portfolio of enzymes. The course concerns the recombination and repair of genetic material. Special emphasis will be placed on homologous recombination but some aspects of illegitimate recombination will also be covered. The course deals with tetrad analysis in Neurospora, Ascobolus, Sordaria and yeast. Recombination in prokaryotes will also be discussed. The evidence concerning the Holliday, Meselson-Radding and Szostak models of recombination will be presented and discussed. The genes and enzymes involved in the recombination and repair process will be described. The role of recombination in cellular processes such as mating type switch in yeast and in the regulation of flagellar switching in prokaryotes will also be presented. When taught in Dublin, Ireland the course GENE 30010 Genetics at UCD; Recombinant DNA is one of the main technologies that underpins many of the current developments in molecular biology and genetics. This module will provide students with an understanding of the varied approaches to and applications of molecular cloning. These range from cloning specific DNA sequences to generating gene libraries for genome sequencing. Different cloning approaches will be covered; from cDNA and genomic cloning, cloning microsatellite markers to the use of cloning to express proteins in animal, bacterial or plant cells. Molecular cloning has been one of the main drivers for gene discovery. DNA sequence databases generated from genome sequencing are now a fundamental resource for all molecular biologists, the development of different database types will be covered. Understanding of animal and plant development has benefited from the adoption of model organisms, particularly those whose genomes have been sequenced. This has been aided by the development of resources for forward and reverse genetics in these species coupled with map-based cloning of genes. This knowledge and tools developed for cloning is now being applied to the molecular analysis of natural populations.

BIOS 34312. Ecology I

(V-0-V) 

Introduction to the foundations of ecology: abiotic factors regulating populations, interactions between individuals, characteristics of populations and communities, and the complexity of eco-systems. These basic concepts are studied from theoretical and practical perspectives.

BIOS 34322. Electives in Ecology I

(5-0-5) 

ZO 3081 Elective in Ecology at TCD, comprised of ZO 3303 Estuarine Ecology, ZO 3305 Marine Biology, and ZO 3307 Terrestrial Ecology Field Course and Z03301 Marine Biology Field Course. ZO 3303-The elective consists of a series of lectures on a variety of aspects such as estuarine usage, management and conflicts; the biota, from birds to algae and microbes, with the accent on processes and productivity; sediments and geomorphology; hydrology; sampling strategies and methods; pollution inputs, effects and detection and the environmental interactions of the various influences. ZO3305- This elective presents an introduction to Marine Biology and the ocean habitat. It covers: Marine habitats; organisms of the plankton, seasonal cycles and distribution of planktonic organisms; the sea shore, shore zonation. Hard and soft substrates and the benthos. Sea floor sediments and fauna; special habitats: the deep sea; coral reefs; polar waters. ZO 3307- A residential terrestrial field course will be run over a one week period towards the end of the Hilary Term. There will be an introduction to field techniques used for the study of terrestrial ecosystems with an emphasis on zoological assessment. Field visits will help with an understanding of contrasting habitats and conservation management. ZO 3301 Marine Biology Field Course. The various marine habitats in Co. Down are explored using Queen's University marine facility at Portaferry as a base. The emphasis is on learning about the great variety of form and habit in marine organisms and the student is introduced to taxonomy, morphology and marine science.

BIOS 34323. Freshwater Biology

(3-0-3) 

"ZO 3083 Freshwater Biology at TCD; This is an introductory module in freshwater systems (lakes and rivers) that explores the effect of water quality on the biota and community structure. Areas studied include: Factors that determine the distribution of biota: Natural dispersion; flow, substrate; dissolved solids; dissolved oxygen and temperature; suspended solids. Aquatic ecosystems: Community structure; identification of organisms; functional feeding groups; P:R, plants, allochtonous and autochotonus inputs; habitat zonation; river and lake ecosystems; feeding guilds; microbial oxygen demand (including self-purification, oxygen balance, re-aeration, the oxygen-sag curve). Water pollution: Toxic substances; suspended solids (inert and oxidizable), deoxygenation, non-toxic salts (inc. salinization, eutrophication and algal toxins); heated water, effect on buffering system; diffuse pollution; afforestation; response to climate change. Water basin management: Basic management processes; Water Framework Directive; water quality and regulation. Water quality assessment: Physio-chemical and biological surveillance; Sampling surface waters (including designing sampling programmers, mixing, safety in the field, hydrological measurements; chemical and biological sampling); Biological data (including pollution and diversity indices; multivariate analysis); Chemical data (including chemical indices; mass balance and modeling); RIVPAC and the UK GQA scheme. The module comprises lectures, field and laboratory work."

BIOS 34342. Developmental Biology

(3-0-3)

Taught as CELB 30010 "Animal Development" at host institution. The purpose of the course is to introduce students to the subject of animal development. The course describes the morphology of early development (from fertilization to gastrulation) in a number of animals and focuses on the molecular basis of antero-posterior patterning in early Drosophila embryos. It also covers germ cell specification, gametogenesis, sex determination and the role of cell-cell signaling in developmental processes. The course emphasizes the concept of "differential gene expression from the same nuclear repertoire" (Gilbert, 2003) as a basic theme in development, and stresses the importance of experimental strategies for determination of gene expression. The course also emphasizes the experimental significance of model organisms for study of developmental processes, and encourages students to critically assess the advantages and limitations of the most popular models.

BIOS 34352. Electives in Ecology

(3-0-3) 

Combines ZO 3305 Marine Biology at TCD; This elective presents an introduction to Marine Biology and the ocean habitat. It covers: Marine habitats; organisms of the plankton, seasonal cycles and distribution of planktonic organisms; the sea shore, shore zonation. Hard and soft substrates and the benthos. Sea floor sediments and fauna; special habitats: the deep sea; coral reefs; polar waters. and ZO 3306 Wildlife Biology at TCD; This elective offers an introduction to the field of Wildlife Biology, both globally and regionally. Topics covered will include: wildlife as individuals, populations and communities, foraging ecology, habitat selection, inter- and intra-specific competition, territoriality, dispersion, population dynamics and regulation. There will also be a short survey of the origins, development and current status of the Irish vertebrate fauna.

BIOS 34401. Microbial Pathogenicity

(3-0-3) 

"Course consists of MI 3011 Microbial Pathogenicity, MI 3021 Bacterial Physiology and MI 3062 Molecular Biology of Fungal and Protozoal Pathogens at Trinity. MI 3011 Microbial Pathogenicity at Trinity College; This course deals with the molecular biology of bacterial toxins and how dissection of the structure and mode of action of these toxins has led to greater understanding of mammalian cell biology and the pathogenesis of infection. The toxins included are neurotoxins (botulinum and tetanus toxins), ADP- ribosylating toxins (diphtheria toxin, cholera toxin and E. coli LT enterotoxin), large clostridial cytotoxins (Toxin of Clostridium difficile - TCD), other toxins modifying small GTP- binding proteins, cytolytic toxins (phospholipases and pore-forming toxins), Staphylococcus aureus epidermolytic toxin (ET), and anthrax toxins (edema factor and lethal toxin). MI 3021 Bacterial Physiology at Trinity College; This course deals with bacterial motility, chemotaxis, adaptation to osmotic stress, transport mechanisms, nutrition of bacteria, uptake of substrates, Embden-Meyerhof pathway, oxidative decarboxylation of pyruvate to acetyl-CoA, Entner-Doudoroff pathway, oxidative pentose phosphate cycle, TCA cycle, respiratory chains in bacteria, diversity in energy metabolism, bacterial fermentations, the anaerobic food chain, fermentation, anaerobic respiration, and the chemiosmotic theory. MI 3062 Molecular Biology of Fungal and Protozoal Pathogens at Trinity College; This course covers the following: survey of pathogenic species of fungi and protozoa; biology of Candida, Trypanosoma, Leishmania and Plasmodium species; diseases caused by them; molecular and cellular biology of major eukaryotic pathogens, especially nuclear and extranuclear genomes, gene expression, variant antigen switching, unusual metabolic pathways, chemotherapy and vaccines. "

BIOS 34403. Invertebrate Biology 

(3-0-3) 

Taught as ZO 3051 ' Invertebrate Form and Function' This team-taught course provides a detailed consideration of the structure, life cycles and general biology of the invertebrate groups. The practical work involves observation using living specimens and demonstrations of material from the Zoological collections.

BIOS 34406. Arthropoda

(3-0-3) 

ZOOL 30020 at UCD and Z) 3052 at Trinity for 1.5 credits . This third level course deals with diversity, classification, biology, functional morphology, life cycles and strategies for survival of the phylum Arthropoda, the largest and most successful animal group. Complimentary practical material reinforces theory concepts and exposes students to the taxonomic value of voucher material through instruction on collection and curation techniques. Presentation of a collection of mounted/pinned specimens is a component of the practical assessment.

BIOS 34407. Animal Science

(3-0-3) 

This course is taught as ZO 3020 Behavioral Ecology at Trinity College in Dublin. This lecture and practical course gives a broad grounding in the theoretical and practical basis of behavioral ecology. The subject is introduced with an historical overview of the basic concepts behind the study of animal behavior. Following this, topics covered in detail include how animals obtain food, avoid predators, breed and communicate. The practical work provides students with experience in studying behavior in both the field and the laboratory, and provides training in behavioral recording techniques. It guides students through appropriate statistical analysis of the data sets collected in the practicals, and in their presentation in written form. It includes work with live animals both in the laboratory and at Dublin Zoo. When this course is offered at Perth, Australia, the course description is as follows. This unit begins with concepts of the behavior and welfare of animals because society now demands that students be thoroughly trained in these areas. This is followed by a consideration of the principles of animal physiology and ecology as a basis for understanding how both native and domestic animals are distributed within Western Australia and how they cope with, and adapt to, their environment. Growth and development, reproduction, genetics and nutrition are considered as the underlying biology for production (meat, wool, milk, eggs) in domestic animals and for the management and conservation of native animals. Animals' requirements for nutrients are considered in relation to their supply of food under natural, extensive conditions on the one hand and under controlled, intensive conditions on the other. When taught in Dublin, Ireland the course ZOOL 20020 Animal Behavior at UCD; A wide-ranging review, including insects, vertebrates and Man, of significant and fundamental aspects of animal behavior. Phenomena dealt with in detail include: insect chemoreception with special reference to chemical cues, interpretation of deer behavior in the context of game theory, and the role of pheromones in human behavior.

BIOS 34409. Principles of Microbiology Lab

(3-0-3) 

MI 3012 Medical Microbiology at TCD; The course begins with the normal flora of man and will involve isolation and identification of commensal bacteria from the skin, the nose and the mouth using selective media, identification of bacteria using classical biochemical tests and the API system, detailed characterization of staphylococci, measurement of antibiotic susceptibility and resistance (disc tests, minimum inhibitory concentrations) and characterization of pseudomonads and streptococci. Attention will be paid to performing dilutions and to manipulating molarities and concentrations. Students will become proficient in aseptic pure culture technique. MI 3074 Applied and Environmental Microbiology Practical at TCD; This course allows students to put into practice microbiological methods in analysis and study of environmental conditions and samples. It will also cover analytical microbiology in the food, agricultural and pharmaceutical industries through a number of mini projects. Control of microbial growth and its assessment will also be covered. Students work individually in this course allowing each to develop hands-on aseptic skills, planning and data handling capabilities.

BIOS 34415. Parasitology

(3-0-3) 

Taught as ZO 3041 ' Parasitology' An introductory course comprising both lectures and practicals which complement each other. The significance of the host-parasite relationship and the processes associated with the definition of parasitism are discussed. The epidemiology of parasitic diseases including important differences between microparasites and macroparasites are defined. The significance of parasite distributions within host populations is highlighted. External and internal factors, which influence parasite populations, are outlined and particular attention is paid to host behavior, genetics and immunity. The concept of a parasite community at the infracommunity and component community level is developed. In the later part of the course, parasites of human importance receive particular emphasis. Examples from three important parasite phyla are reviewed with a focus upon life cycle strategies, ecology, pathology and control. The practical work provides access to a wide range of parasitic material and gives emphasis to the diversity of parasitic lifestyles and forms. A number of the sessions are experimental in nature and explore parasitic adaptations for infection, the significance of parasite distributions in infected hosts, behavioral changes in parasitized hosts and the nature of parasite communities.

BIOS 34416. Virology

(3-0-3) 

Course consists of MI 3051 Virology 1 and MI 3052 Virology II at Trinity. MI 3051 Virology I at Trinity College; This course deals with properties of viruses compared to other microorganisms, classification of viruses, virion structure, and the molecular biology of virus multiplication. MI 3052 Virology II at Trinity College; This course runs in conjunction with the Virology II practical course MI 3053- lectures cover animal cell culture, mammalian cell biology, virus growth and assay, defense against virus infection, epidemiology of virus diseases, plant virology and specific examples of animal viral disease.

BIOS 34420. Aquatic Ecology

(3-0-3)

Z0 3022, ZO 3023 ' Freshwater Biology' An introduction to the study of fresh waters and a survey of human impacts upon them. Global abundance and distribution of fresh waters; river courses and biota; the origins and morphometry of lakes; water physics - currents, waves, seiches, thermal stratification, transparency; water chemistry - oxygen, salinity, nutrients and trophic status; plankton - flotation, size-selective predation, vertical migration; macrophytes and benthic production. Physical change from human activity - drainage, impoundment, thermal pollution; chemical - heavy metals, industrial wastes, road run-off; organic pollution and eutrophication; agricultural and domestic wastes. There will be laboratory sessions on water analysis. This course, based in the Department, complements ZO3022 and emphasizes the diversity of freshwater habitats and their fauna. Day visits are made to mountain and lowland lakes, canals, rivers, marshes, bog pools and other wetlands. Sampling methods and identification skills are practiced, and there are experimental group projects.

BIOS 34421. Comparative Physiology

(3-0-3) 

Taught at a host institution. This course uses examples drawn from the animal kingdom. Living animals adjust their physiological mechanisms to successfully deal with the environment which is their natural habitat. Various adaptations are explored based on, for example, the adaptations of the respiratory system that enable some mammals to dive deep into the ocean to feed, the adaptation of the excretory system that enable animals to survive in arid conditions. The systems are compared in mammals, reptiles, fishes and birds.

BIOS 34422. Marine Ecology

(3-0-3) 

Taught as ANIM 3314 "Marine Ecology" at host institution. This unit begins with a brief global view of the oceans and features of sea water that influence biological processes. The unit then deals in detail with how ecologists propose that the structures of marine communities are organized by considering examples of experimental studies of natural communities in sandy and rocky beaches, coral reefs, sand and mud flats, mangroves and the deep sea. It describes interactions between humans and large reptiles and mammals. Practical work comprises supervised investigations involving the sampling and design of experiments, analysis of data and preparation of a report.

BIOS 34425. Mammology

(3-0-3) 

This course consists of combinations of different courses taken at TCD or taken separately. ZO 3026 ' Principles of Wildlife Biology' This course offers an introduction to the field of Wildlife Biology, both globally and regionally. Topics covered will include: Wildlife as individuals, populations and communities, Foraging ecology, Habitat selection, Inter- and Intraspecific competition, Territoriality, Dispersion, Population dynamics and regulation. There will also be a short survey of the origins, development and current status of the Irish vertebrate fauna. ZO 3082 'Marine Biology and Elective G ZO 3081 Terrestrial Ecology Field Course together count for 2.5 credits. Marine Biology description: This course presents an introduction to Marine Biology and the ocean habitat. It covers: marine habitats, organisms of the plankton, seasonal cycles and distribution of planktonic organisms; the sea shore, shore zonation. Hard and soft substrates and the benthos. Sea floor sediments and in fauana; special habitats: the deep sea; coral reefs; polar waters. ZO 3081 'Terrestrial Ecology Field Course' counts alone as 1 credit. Course description: A terrestrial field course will be run over a one week period in the Trinity Term. There will be an introduction to field techniques used for the study of terrestrial ecosystems with an emphasis on zoological assessment. Field visits will help with an understanding of contrasting habitats and conservation management.

BIOS 34461. Bioindicators and Pollution

(1.5-0-1.5) 

Taught as ES 3454 "Bioindicators and Pollution' The aim of the Bioindicators and Pollution course is to draw on and make students aware of the range of expertise we have in College in the field of Bioindicators, which is a subject that was and still is receiving increasing attention from both scientist and manager. It draws on experts from different Departments and the course is focused by the series of tutorial sessions on indices. Note that in-course assessment is available only to international students on discussion with the course adviser.

BIOS 34475. Laboratory Animal Science

(3-0-3) 

"Course consists of MI 3013 Laboratory Animal Science, MI 3071 Applied and Environmental Microbiology, and MI 3072 Molecular Biotechnology at Trinity,MI 3013 Laboratory Animal Science at Trinity College; This course deals with legal and general aspects of animal experimentation, animal tissues, animal models, characteristics of individual animal species, quantitative aspects of animal experimentation, immunization of animals, monoclonal antibody production, and ethical aspects. MI 3071 Applied and Environmental Microbiology at Trinity College; This course will cover the practical aspects of setting up and running an analytic microbiology laboratory. This will include an introduction to Good Laboratory Practice, Standard Methods, Quality Assurance, Laboratory Accreditation and Management Systems, biohazardous waste handling, proficiency testing, laboratory safety etc. The courses in industry, the problems they can cause and the methods that are available to isolate, identify, classify, control and manipulate them, including Standard Methods and rapid techniques. It will introduce the concepts of microbial ecology and its associated study methods, also the microbiology foods and beverages and general environmental microbiology. A number of case studies in industry will be covered. Exercises in information sourcing, Standard Methods and legislation will be undertaken. Theoretical aspects will dovetail with the associated practical course MI 3074.MI 3072 Molecular Biotechnology at Trinity College; This course is designed to introduce the student to ways in which molecular biological techniques can be applied to current problems in Industry, Agriculture and Medicine. Topics covered will include recombinant DNA techniques, production of biological pesticides, bio-remediation and genetic engineering in plants, large scale production of proteins in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells and human gene therapy. "

BIOS 34563. Wetlands Ecology with Lab

(3-0-3) 

ES 3450, ES 3451 ' Estuary Ecology with Practical' The course consists of a series of lectures on a variety of aspects such as estuarine usage, management and conflicts: the biota, from birds to algae and microbes, with the accent on processes and productivity; sediments and geomorphology, hydrology; sampling strategies and methods; pollution inputs, effects and detection; and finally an overview of the course using the Liffey as an example. The practical work runs over the whole of the term and consists of a number of groups from the class, each of which is responsible for obtaining data on the productivity of one ecosystem compartment (water, sediment, algae, macro invertebrates, birds) on a marked hectare of mudflat at Bull Island.

BIOS 34663. Applied Lab Techniques

(3-0-3) 

ZO 3060 Applied Laboratory Techniques at TCD; This two-part module will consist of a series of lectures and practicals, in the first part, covering basic microscopical and cellular techniques and their theoretical basis, and a further series of laboratory practicals that include exercises in histology, histochemistry and related basic techniques, such as solution preparation and imaging. Lectures will support the practical component of the module. The second part, during a one-week intensive period, will focus on the application of molecular biology techniques to research problems in Zoology and will take the form of lab-based sessions on DNA manipulation and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) as well as lectures on DNA manipulation and topics related to the practical component of the module.

BIOS 44428. Practical Public Health Microbiology

(3-0-3) 

MI 3022 Antimicrobial Agents at TCD; This course deals with antimicrobial drugs, their modes of action at the molecular level, mechanisms of selective toxicity, bactericidal and bacteriostatic mechanisms, and mechanisms of resistance specified by plasmids or by chromosomal mutations. The following general groups of antimicrobials are covered: inhibitors of folate metabolism, inhibitors that bind to the bacterial ribosome, drugs that bind to DNA gyrase, drugs that perturb the activity of membranes and the biosynthesis of cell walls. Evolution of antibiotic resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and new strategies for drug discovery are also covered. MI 3071 Applied and Environmental Microbiology at TCD; This course will cover the practical aspects of setting up and running an analytical microbiology laboratory. This will include an introduction to good laboratory practice, standard methods, quality assurance, laboratory accreditation and management systems, biohazardous waste handling, proficiency testing, laboratory safety etc. The course will then explore microbial diversity, uses in industry, the problems they can cause and the methods that are available to isolate, identify, classify, control and manipulate them, including standard methods and rapid techniques. It will introduce the concepts of microbial ecology and its associated study methods, also the microbiology of foods and beverages and general environmental microbiology. A number of case studies in industry will be covered. Exercises in information sourcing, standard methods and legislation will be undertaken. Theoretical aspects will dovetail with the associated practical course MI 3074.

BIOS 44470. Special Topics

(3-0-3) 

PHAR 30030 at UCD. This module forms part of the core curriculum of the B.Sc. degree in Pharmacology. The course covers the principles of toxicology, the factors which affect the toxicity of compounds, and the effects of a range of toxic materials on body functions in terms of the potential disruption of normal physiology, metabolism and behavior. Areas covered: General principles, Toxicity testing, Toxicokinetics, Genetic Toxicology & Carcinogens, Hepatic Toxicity, Blood Toxicity, Immunotoxicity, Lung Toxicity, Teratogenesis, Neurotoxicology, Renal Toxicology, Toxic agents (Pesticides), Reproductive & Clinical Toxicology.


Puebla, Mexico

BIOS 34310. Ecology I Lab

(1-0-1)

To analyze and to apply an assembly of ecological know-how and basic tools of field, techniques of sampling, of collection and of analysis of data; in the solution of different problems in the area of the ecological investigation.

BIOS 34312. Ecology I

(V-0-V)

UDLA #: BL 325 : Introduction to the foundations of ecology: abiotic factors regulating populations, interactions between individuals, characteristics of populations and communities, and the complexity of eco-systems. These basic concepts are studied from theoretical and practical perspectives.

BIOS 34317. Ecology II

(3-0-3) 

UDLA # BL 430: This course aims to describe the relationship between humans and their natural and artificial (urban) environments. Emphasis is placed on the environmental problems resulting from the relationship, and the solutions are considered from theoretical and practical perspectives.

BIOS 34410. Public Health

(3-0-3) 

To present students an overview of public health which enables them to understand and analyze the health situation of the community, the response that organized society has given the health problems and needs through policies, programs and projects developed by the National Health System, with the intention that students will be involved and informed in their professional field.

BIOS 34556. Histology

(3-0-3) 

The approach is to provide an extensive account of the histologic structure of human organs and how they function within human organ systems. One major learning outcome is to understand the histology of human organs within the context of cell biology in preparation for studying pathology and advanced cell biology and molecular biology.


Dakar, Senegal

BIOS 34250. Environment and Development in Senegal and Sub-Saharan Africa

(3-0-3)

Taught at a host institution. The course aims at giving not just information and skills to understand particular environmental problems in Senegal/Africa, but also to develop some methods for environmental problem identification and analysis by an integrated approach so-called holistic interdisciplinary paradigm.