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Toward Malaria Elimination: Precedents, Antecedents, and Processes

Author: Sarah Craig

Edward Walker and Zain Syed

The University of Notre Dame has a long and rich tradition of research and training programs focused on reducing the burden of tropical infectious diseases around the globe. In honor of that tradition, the University established the George B. Craig, Jr. Memorial Lecture in 1996. The lecture series is hosted by the Eck Institute for Global Health and recognizes one of Notre Dame’s most distinguished professors and his global contributions to infectious tropical diseases and science both at the University and around the world. The 2013 Memorial Lecture was presented on Wednesday, September 18, 2013 by one of Craig’s postdoctoral residents in training Edward D. Walker, Ph.D., who holds academic appointments in the Department of Entomology and the Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics at Michigan State University (MSU).

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New paper describes genetic connections between biological rhythms, timing of feeding and insulin sensitivity

Author: William G. Gilroy

gilesduffield

A new study by a team of University of Notre Dame researchers, which appears in the Sept. 2 edition of the journal PLoS ONE, is a significant step in understanding the molecular genetic and physiological basis for a spectrum of metabolic diseases related to circadian function.

Obesity and diabetes have reached epidemic levels and are responsible for increased morbidity and mortality throughout the world. Furthermore, the incidence of metabolic disease is significantly elevated in shift-work personnel, revealing an important link between the circadian clock, the sleep-wake cycle, time-of-day feeding and metabolism.

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Notre Dame high-energy physicists receive NSF award to continue work with CERN

Author: Gene Stowe

Higgs boson

University of Notre Dame high-energy physicists have received a $2.4 million, three-year award from the National Science Foundation to continue their work on the CMS (Compact Muon Solenoid) experiment on campus and at CERN, the European Organization for Nuclear Research. The group’s work includes physics analysis central to the recent Higgs boson discovery.

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What is the P vs. NP problem? Why is it important?

Author: Shadia Ajam

Math for Everyone Series

The P versus NP problem has appeared in shows like The Simpsons and Numb3rs, and in the SIMS 3 video game. What is the P versus NP problem and why should we care?

This past Thursday (Sept. 12) at the Math for Everyone lecture series, Lance Fortnow, Professor and Chair of the School of Computer Science at the Georgia Institute of Technology, gave a presentation on the importance of the P versus NP problem and how, if solved, could dramatically affect our everyday lives.

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Talk Science showcases research from Elizabeth Owers and Dean Crawford

Author: Shadia Ajam

Elizabeth Owers

Scientia, the Undergraduate Journal of Scientific Research, hosts a monthly seminar series called Talk Science that highlights the work of undergraduate and faculty researchers in the College of Science. This month’s presenters were senior science preprofessional studies major Elizabeth Owers and Greg Crawford, dean of the College of Science and professor of physics.

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Notre Dame researcher awarded grant to study improving water quality in Lake Erie

Author: Jim Erickson

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Sheila Christopher, a research assistant professor at the University of Notre Dame Environmental Change Initiative, has won a research grant to study the effects of new farmland-drainage practices in reducing farm runoff in the Western Lake Erie Basin.

Christopher, who works with Ludmilla F., Stephen J., and Robert T. Galla Professor of Biological Sciences Jennifer Tank on the Land Use and Water Quality program at ECI, won the $155,358 grant from the University of Michigan Water Center for her project, “Watershed-scale assessment of stacked drainage practices in the Western Lake Erie Basin to improve water quality.”

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International Development Studies Minor Transforms Undergraduates’ Notre Dame Experience

Author: Mary Hendriksen

IDS Minor 2

What if an undergraduate “minor” were not so much a secondary course of study but the centerpiece of a student’s entire Notre Dame undergraduate education? That scenario perfectly describes the experience of the first cohort to complete the International Development Studies (IDS) minor administered by the Ford Family Program in Human Development Studies and Solidarity at the Kellogg Institute for International Studies.

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Navari's research leads to NCCN endorsement

Author: Gail Hinchion Mancini

Rudolph M

As a result of multiple, long-range studies by oncologist Rudolph M. Navari, M.D., Ph.D., the National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) has endorsed olanzapine as a first line therapy to assuage the effects of nausea and vomiting induced by chemotherapy, and its use when nausea and vomiting occur days after treatment.

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Need help with math? Free tutoring is available

Author: Stephanie Healey

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The O’Meara Mathematics Library staff is pleased to announce that free tutoring sessions will be offered in the branch library Sunday -Thursday from 7-11 p.m. for undergraduate students from any mathematics class.

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Students share their medical mission experiences

Author: Shadia Ajam

Dooley Society medical mission presentations

Each year Notre Dame alumni in medicine award stipends to a group of current Notre Dame students or alumni in medical school to cover funds for international medical missions. This past Saturday (Sept. 5) before the Notre Dame vs. Texas game, several of the students convened in the Jordan Hall of Science to present their medical mission experiences.

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Mosquitoes smell you better at night, study finds

Author: Sarah Craig

A female Anopheles gambiae mosquito seen at 125x magnification (© David Scharf/Science Faction/Corbis)

In work published this week in Nature: Scientific Reports, a team of researchers from the University of Notre Dame’s Eck Institute for Global Health, led by Associate Professor Giles Duffield and Assistant Professor Zain Syed of the Department of Biological Sciences, revealed that the major malaria vector in Africa, the Anopheles gambiae mosquito, is able to smell major human host odorants better at night.

The study reports an integrative approach to examine the mosquito’s ability to smell across the 24-hour day and involved proteomic, sensory physiological, and behavioral techniques.

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Capt. Carter appointed to assistant dean in the College of Science

Author: Stephanie Healey

Earl Carter

Captain Clarence (Earl) Carter, USN (Retired) will be joining the College of Science as an assistant dean on September 1. In his new role, Capt. Carter will assume many new duties in the College of Science, including facilities oversight, faculty appointments, assisting the associate deans and department chairs in college-wide efforts, and will serve an integral role in the strategic planning process.

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Researchers identify new drug target for treating jet lag and shift work disorders

Author: William G. Gilroy

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University of Notre Dame researchers, as part of a collaborative effort, have identified a protein that potentially could be a target for drugs that that would help people recover faster from jet lag and better adjust their circadian rhythms during rotational shift work. The study appears in the Aug. 29 issue of the journal Cell.

An internal circadian body clock helps virtually all creatures synchronize their bodily functions to the 24-hour cycle of light and dark in a day. However, travel to a different time zone, or shift work, disrupts the body’s clock.

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Notre Dame and Moi University join research efforts to shed light on breast cancer

Author: William G. Gilroy

Sharon Stack, left, Rispah Torrorey and Laurie Littlepage

Breast cancer is a major health problem worldwide, and the incidence of the disease is rising across Africa.

A new joint research effort between the University of Notre Dame’s Eck Institute for Global Health and Harper Cancer Research Institute and a Kenyan doctoral student from Moi University is examining the unique manifestation of breast cancer in Kenya.

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New study explores how dengue virus changes mosquito behavior

Author: Sarah Craig

aegypti_250

Biting mosquitoes are not only annoying but can be dangerous, even deadly. A new study involving researchers at the University of Notre Dame explores a potential biological mechanism through which disease virus can alter the behavior of mosquitoes. In a previous study, led by Alexandre Peixoto of Fiocruz in Brazil, disease-infected mosquitoes were found to fly around more than uninfected mosquitoes, increasing their ability to spread chronic and deadly diseases.

The new study indicates that drug-treated mosquitoes behave differently than those not treated, flying farther or for a longer duration. While this initially is not good news for humans and animals, the research indicates that with this knowledge researchers can develop better intervention tools to stop disease transmission. Results of the study were published this month in the Journal of Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases.

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All the better to see cancer with

Author: Michael Rodio

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By creating a novel imaging technique, Prof. Amanda Hummon, a colorectal cancer specialist, and Prof. Paul Bohn, an imaging expert, are looking inside tumors with greater clarity than ever before.

One of the most vexing challenges in the fight against cancer is the disease’s adaptability: Even if cancerous cells are quickly detected and treated, they can develop new ways to evade treatment.

To make matters worse, researchers have a hard time “seeing” inside tumors, which are jumbled masses of different kinds of cells. This makes it difficult to test how tumors respond to new drugs designed to overcome that resistance. For doctors, it’s like trying to hit a hidden, three-dimensional target—while the target is moving.  

 

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Astronomers utilize Hubble Space Telescope to find source of Magellanic Stream

Author: Marissa Gebhard

Magellanic Stream

University of Notre Dame astronomers Nicolas Lehner and Christopher Howk, along with their collaborators, have used NASA’s Hubble Space Telescope to solve a 40-year mystery on the origin of the Magellanic Stream, a long ribbon of gas stretching nearly halfway around our Milky Way galaxy.

The Large and Small Magellanic Clouds, two dwarf galaxies orbiting the Milky Way, are at the head of the gaseous stream. Since the stream’s discovery by radio telescopes in the early 1970s, astronomers have wondered whether the gas comes from one or both of the satellite galaxies. New Hubble observations reveal most of the gas was stripped from the Small Magellanic Cloud about 2 billion years ago, and a second region of the stream originated more recently from the Large Magellanic Cloud.

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GLOBES moves to the Reilly Center

Author: Jessica Baron

GLOBES

The John J. Reilly Center for Science, Technology, and Values recently announced  that the GLOBES graduate program is now part of the Reilly Center. The move will take place before the start of the Fall 2013 semester and will allow for maximum collaboration between the two entities in the coming school year.

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Undergraduates present summer research findings at symposium

Author: Stephanie Healey

Student presentations in the Galleria

On Friday, Aug. 2, undergraduate researchers who spent their summers in laboratories at the University of Notre Dame, University of Michigan, and Ivy Tech Community College, presented their summer research projects at the Summer Undergraduate Research Symposium in the Jordan Hall of Science.

Research findings were shared as oral and poster presentations throughout the day, with a total of 164 presentations from areas of science and engineering.

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Patricia Clark receives $3.8M NIH collaborative award

Author: Gene Stowe

Patricia Clark

Patricia L. Clark, the Rev. John Cardinal O’Hara, C.S.C. Professor of Chemistry and Biochemistry, has received a $3.8M award from the National Institutes of Health (NIH) to lead a pioneering model of collaboration that draws together seven institutions, eight co-PIs and six postdoctoral associates to study macromolecular interactions in living cells. Norm Dovichi, the Grace-Rupley Professor of Chemistry, is also a PI, focusing on separations and single molecule detection. Matthew Champion, a Research Assistant Professor in the Mass Spectrometry and Proteomics Facility, will serve as deputy director of the team.

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Dean on Road to Discovery to raise funds for medical research reaches final leg of journey

Author: Marissa Gebhard

Road to Discovery 2013

On Friday (Aug. 2), Greg Crawford, dean of the College of Science at the University of Notre Dame, will ride the final leg of a 3,476-mile bicycle ride into Baltimore. His arrival coincides with the National Niemann-Pick Disease Foundation’s Family Support and Medical Research Conference and a meeting of the International Niemann-Pick Disease Alliance, which brings together researchers from 16 countries around the world.

The “Road to Discovery” bicycle ride has raised awareness and more than $400,000 in funding for research and a clinical trial to treat children with Niemann-Pick Type C (NPC) disease, a rare, fatal cholesterol-storage disorder that took the lives of three grandchildren of legendary Notre Dame football coach Ara Parseghian.

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Record breaking attendance at the seventh annual Arthropod Genomics Symposium

Author: Sarah Craig

Arthropod Genomics Symposium

Over 250 scientists from around the world attended the 2013 Arthropod Genomics Symposium and Vector Base Workshop from June 12-15, 2013. This was the first time the Eck Institute for Global Health hosted this annual event of professional scientists and researchers. Presenters included researchers at the forefront of developing genomic approaches to arthropods, both model organisms and those of agricultural or health relevance.

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Undergraduates from across the country compete in Physics Olympics

Author: Adam Soisson

Physics Olympics

Most people think that 2013 was an off year for the Olympics, but not at Notre Dame. Students in the physics section of the Research Experience for Undergraduates (REU) programs at Michigan State University, Purdue University, and the University of Notre Dame competed in the Physics Olympics on Monday, July in the Jordan Hall of Science. Comprised of undergraduates from across the country, the REU programs at the respective universities give students opportunities to work with faculty and graduate students on research and other projects throughout the summer.

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Ansel Nalin and Matthew Metzinger win Batten Fellowships

Author: Michael Rodio

ansel_nalin

The researchers at the Harper Cancer Research Institute are some of the best minds in their fields, with decades of scientific research experience in the fight against cancer. But some of Institute’s top researchers haven’t even finished college yet.

And even though Ansel Nalin ’14 and Matthew Metzinger ’15 still have to contend with midterms and homework (to say nothing of dining hall food), the two College of Science undergraduates are performing serious research in the fight against cancer—thanks to research funding from the Notre Dame College of Science.

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Notre Dame astrophysicist determines occurrence rate of giant planets around M-dwarfs

Author: Gene Stowe

Justin Crepp

A study led by Notre Dame astrophysicist Justin Crepp has for the first time definitively determined how many of the lowest-mass stars in the galaxy host gas giant planets. The researchers’ paper, “The Occurrence Rate of Giant Planets around M-dwarfs,” was posted to arXiv this week and submitted for publication in the Astrophysical Journal.

The group used ground-based imaging observations in combination with the Doppler radial velocity method to determine that 6.5 percent of low-mass stars, the so-called “M-dwarfs,” have planets located within 20 astronomical units, including the outer regions where researchers previously could not access.

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Notre Dame-Bruker partnership promotes advancements in imaging

Author: Marissa Gebhard

Example PET, SPECT and CT images from the Albira at the Notre Dame In Vivo Imaging Facility

The University of Notre Dame has established a formal partnership with Bruker Corp., a world leader in scientific instrumentation. The partnership will develop one of the Midwest’s top imaging facilities at Notre Dame. The arrangement, called Bruker at Notre Dame (BAND), will allow the Notre Dame Integrated Imaging Facility (NDIIF) and Bruker to collaborate on research, training and new application development.

Robert J. Bernhard, Notre Dame’s vice president for research, said the agreement will accelerate a wide range of research, education and outreach activities. “The partnership will enable Notre Dame students and faculty to utilize innovative technology from Bruker in our programs, which we believe will also inform Bruker about future markets,” he said. “We believe this partnership will be mutually beneficial to both parties and are very pleased to formalize our relationship.”

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Notre Dame researchers offer new insights on cancer cell signaling

Author: William G. Gilroy

Wnt proteins and cancer cell signaling

A pair of studies by a team of University of Notre Dame researchers led by Crislyn D’Souza-Schorey, professor of biological sciences, sheds light on a biological process that is activated across a vast range of malignancies.

Wnt proteins are a large family of proteins that activate signaling pathways (a set of biological reactions in a cell) to control several vital steps in embryonic development. In adults, Wnt-mediated functions are frequently altered in many types of cancers and, specifically, within cell subpopulations that possess stem cell-like properties.

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